CHM 1045 READING .docx - CHM1045 READING SPRING 2019 1.1...

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CHM1045 READING SPRING 2019 1.1 What is Chemistry? 1.1.1 Chemistry is the study of properties and behavior matter studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matters What is properties? o Any characteristic that helps you distinguish any particular type of matter Atoms- building blocks of matter o Composition- atoms the matter contains o Structure- the arrangement of atoms Molecules- two or more atoms joined in a specific shape 1.2 Classification of Matter 1.2.1 Two forms of classification (1) its physical state (gas, liquid, or solid) and (2) its composition (whether it is an element, a compound, or a mixture). 1.2.1.1 State of Matter Gas o also known as vapor) has no fixed volume or shape; rather, it uniformly fills its container. A gas can be compressed to occupy a smaller volume, or it can expand to occupy a larger one. Liquid o has a distinct volume independent of its container, assumes the shape of the portion of the container it occupies, and is not compressible to any appreciable extent. Solid o has both a definite shape and a definite volume and is not compressible to any appreciable extent 1.2.1.1.1 Composition Pure Substances- matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample. Fixed composition o Elements substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. On molecular level, one type of atom ex. Hydrogen o Compounds are substances composed of two or more elements; they contain two or more kinds of atoms ex. H2O The observation that the elemental composition of a compound is always the same under the same conditions is known as the law of constant composition (or the law of definite proportions) Mixtures – two or more different substances o The substances making up a mixture are called component s of the mixture o Homogenous mixtures Mixtures that are uniform throughout ex. Air A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution o Heterogenous- rocks or wood
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1.3 Properties of Matter 1.3.1 changes substances undergo are either physical or chemical Physical properties o Physical properties can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. All changes of state are physical. Composition stays the same o Some examples include color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness. Chemical properties o Chemical properties can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance. Change in composition. o One common chemical property is flammability, or the ability to burn in oxygen. Other properties o Intensive properties are independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Examples include density, boiling point, or color. These are important for identifying a substance.
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