CHM1045 READING SPRING 20191.1What is Chemistry?1.1.1Chemistry is the study of properties and behavior matterstudies the composition, structure, properties and change of mattersWhat is properties?oAny characteristic that helps you distinguish any particular type of matter Atoms- building blocks of matter oComposition- atoms the matter contains oStructure- the arrangement of atoms Molecules- two or more atoms joined in a specific shape 1.2Classification of Matter 1.2.1Two forms of classification (1) its physical state (gas, liquid, or solid) and (2) its composition (whether it is an element, a compound, or a mixture).188.8.131.52State of Matter Gasoalso known as vapor) has no fixed volume or shape; rather, it uniformly fills its container. A gas can be compressed to occupy a smaller volume, or it can expandto occupy a larger one.Liquid ohas a distinct volume independent of its container, assumes the shape of the portion of the container it occupies, and is not compressible to any appreciable extent.Solid ohas both a definite shape and a definite volume and is not compressible to any appreciable extent184.108.40.206.1Composition Pure Substances- matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample. Fixed composition oElements substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. On molecular level, one type of atomex. HydrogenoCompounds are substances composed of two or more elements; they contain two or more kinds of atomsex. H2OThe observation that the elemental composition of a compound is always the same under the same conditions is known as the law of constant composition(or the law of definite proportions)Mixtures – two or more different substances oThe substances making up a mixture are called components of the mixtureoHomogenous mixtures Mixtures that are uniform throughout ex. Air A homogeneous mixture is also called a solutionoHeterogenous- rocks or wood
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1.3Properties of Matter1.3.1changes substances undergo are either physical or chemical Physical propertiesoPhysical properties can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. All changes of state are physical. Composition stays the same oSome examples include color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness.Chemical propertiesoChemical properties can onlybe observed when a substance is changed into another substance. Change in composition. oOne common chemical property is flammability, or the ability to burn in oxygen.Other properties oIntensive properties are independent of the amount of the substance that is present.Examples include density, boiling point, or color.These are important for identifying a substance.
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