Oversigt - Midterm

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Unformatted text preview: 272IntroductiontoInterpersonalCommunication DefinitionsofInterpersonalCommunication 1.InterpersonalCommunicationis"theprocessthroughwhichpeoplecreateandmanagetheir relationships,exercisingmutualresponsibilityincreatingmeaning" 2.Interpersonalcommunicationis"thecommunicationthattakesplacebetweentwopersonswho haveanestablishedrelationship;thepeopleareinsomeway`connected'" 3.Interpersonalcommunicationis"dyadiccommunicationinwhichtwoindividuals,sharingtheroles ofsenderandreceiver,becomeconnectedthroughthemutualactivityofcreatingmeaning" InterpersonalCommunication ContextualFactors Historical Cultural Technological Relational/Social Physical Psychological AxiomsofCommunication Impossibilityofnot communicating Contentandrelationshipofcommunication Punctuationofthesequenceofevents Digital&analoguecommunication Symmetrical&complementaryinteraction Spitzberg'sCommunicationCompetence Def:theperceptionofaperson'sabilitytocommunicateinapersonallyeffectiveandsocially appropriatemanner Competencedependson3factors ActionAssemblyTheory Performativecompetence Processcompetence 5KindsofCompetence 1.Interpretive 2.Goal 3.Role 4.Self 5.Message(verbal+nonverbal+relational) Eachinfluencesperformativecompetence. Perception SelfPerception TheSelf=SelfConcept(knowledgecomponent)+SelfEsteem(evaluativecomponent) SelfConcept RealSelf=one'sideaofwhatonereallyis IdealSelf=arealisticimageofwhatonewouldliketobe Differencesbetweentheseleadtoselfconceptdiscrepancies SelfEsteem Innerselfesteem:global,consistent,&resistanttochange vs. Outerselfesteem:situational,temporary,&variable SelfEsteemandCommunication Selfesteeminfluencesinterpersonalcommunicationpreferences Peoplewithhigherselfesteemtendtocommunicatewithconfidence Peoplewithlowerselfesteemtendtocommunicatetentativelyandselfconsciously. UncertaintyReductionTheory PeoplehaveatendencytowanttoreduceuncertaintyinIPinteractions Seekoutinfo 3levelsofprediction:cultural,sociological,psychological PerceptionProblems ImplicitPersonalityTheory a. Haloeffect b. Selectiveperception AttributionTheory Dispositionalvs.situationalattributions Positivebehavior Negativebehavior Self dispositional situational Others situational dispositional Festinger'sCognitiveDissonanceTheory Peoplepreferstatesofconsistency Whentwoormoreelementsaredissonant,thepersonwillacttoreducedissonanceby changingcognitions ImpressionMannagement Goffmann'sDefinitions Interaction/encounter Performance Part/routine Socialrelationship Socialrole Goffmann'sKeyTerms Front o Setting o Appearance o Manner DramaticRealization Idealization RegionandRegionBehavior Frontregionorfrontstage:theplacewheretheperformanceisgiven Backregionorbackstage:theplace,relativetoagivenperformance,wheretheimpression fosteredbytheperformanceisknowinglycontradictedasamatterofcourse. VerbalCommunication 3ProportiesofLanguage,Structure&Use Linguisticcommunicationrequiressharedprinciplesofinferencebeyondinformationgiven ina"surface"reading. Linguisticcommunicationrequiresgenerativeprinciples. Linguisticcommunicationinvolvesthefunctionaldesignoflanguagestructures. InterpretiveApproach Suggeststhatmeaningismutuallyproduced Contextualexpectationsinteractwithlinguisticinformationdeterminesmeaning LanguageRevelasAttitude CommunicationStyle Convergence o Increasesimilaritytotarget o Creatingsolidarity Divergence o Decreasesimilaritytotarget CommunicationContent Gossip o Def:Exchangingopinionsorinformationaboutsomeoneelsewhenthatpersonisn't present Nonverbalcommunication ClassesofNonVerbalCommunication Kinesics o Def:aclassofnonverbalcommunicationhavingtodowithvisualbodilymovements Vocalics PhysicalAppearance o "WhatisBeautifulisGood" o StandardsforBeautifulFaces o ExplainingBeautyPreferences Haptics o Def:studyofphysicaltouch o Culturaldifferences o Genderdifferencesstatushypothesis o Olderpeople:touching~beingtouched Proxemics o Def:studyofdistanceandterritory Chronemics Artifacts Emblems Gesturesthatreplacespeech CulturallySpecific Learned Intentional,deliberate,aware Illustrators Tiedtospeech Accent,complement,repeat,contradict Learned,intentional,aware Typesinclude o Deictics:pointing o Beats:rhythm o Iconics:structuralsimilarity o Metaphorics:littleresemblancetomeaning AffectDisplays Physicalstateofface,body,orvoiceindicativeofemotionalstateofsender Origins:partofbiologicalendowment o Panculturalforfacial o Culturalvariationinelicitation Intentionalornot Basicemotions:Happy,sad,fear,disgust,anger,&surprise Regulators Behaviorsgoverningbackandforthflowofcommunicationininteraction Unintentional;lowawareness Origins:innatecognitive&emotionalprocesses ObjectandSelfAdapters Movementsdirectedatselforobjectsthatsatisfybodilyneeds,manageemotionalstates Unintentional Originsunknown Fidgeting,selftouching,anxiety DefinitionofPosture:Positionofthebody Conversation Startswithgreeting Conversationchannelopenedwitheyecontact Speakoneatatime Whospeakschanges Silenceiscueforsometospeak Listenerssignalpayingattention 4Maxims Quantity Quality Relation Manner DefinitionofTurn:whenonespeakerhassolepossessionofthefloor Themorecuesusedthemoresuccessfultheturnwillbe... DefinitionofPause:theabsenceofsoundinatimeunit;<.25secunheard DiscrepancyArousalTheory(Capella&Green1982) Discrepantbehaviorproducesarousal Small/midarousalchange>reciprocity Largearousalchange>compensatory Listening Definedby: Attendingtoamessage Receptionofmessages(verbal&nonverbal) Constructingmeaninginone'smind Mostofourcommunicationtimeisspentlistening 45%listening,30%speaking,16%reading,9%writing 5KindsofListening Discriminative Comprehensive Critical Therapeutic/Empathetic Appreciative Discussion Comprehensionlisteningisacomplexprocess. Accelerationmeantnotimeforindepthprocessing,rehearsalorsemanticassociations Interpretationcanbemadewithoutexactrecall SumUp Listeningisanimportantskillwhichisoftentakenforgranted. Differentkindsoflisteningcanbeaffecteddifferently. Researchingeverydayconcepts&behaviorslikelisteningcanbechallenging. Deception Definition:anactintendedtofosterinanotherpersonabelieforunderstandingwhichthedeceiver considersfalse 3factorsinfluencelying Synchronicity Recording Presence CuestoDeception Deceptioncue:cuethatdeceptionisoccurring Leakagecue:cuegivingawaythetruth Theoriesaboutdeception Emotion o TypesofLies: Factual Emotionbased o Emotionalleakagecantelltrueemotionalstate o Factualliesmaybeinferredfromsendersapprehension,guiltordelight Control o Truthishidden o Liesunderconsciouscontrol Performancesexaggeratedortoosmooth Himotivation>morecontrol>morestiffness Perceptionofrehearsedperformance Arousal o Undifferentiatedphysiological&cognitiveactivation o Lyingcanincreasearousalthroughanxiety o EmotionalActivation: Eyeblinks Pupildilation CognitiveLoad o Highmentaleffortwhenlying,especiallywithunrehearsedorcomplexlies o Indicators: SpeechLatency Speechmonitoring Gazeaversion DeceptionChannels NVs Only Sending Capacity Control Face Highest Highest Vocal High Intermediate Body Lowest Lowest Deceptivebehaviors Vocalicsweremostconsistentwaytodeterminedeception Nonverbalindicators:pupildilation,speecherrors,hesitancies,pitch,irrelevantcomments Nonverbalsnonindicators:illustrators,adaptors "OthelloError" Misinterpretfear&distressatbeingaccusedoflyingforfear&distressatbeingcaughtlying Preconceptionscanbiasliecatcher'sjudgments SituationalFactors Seriousnessofrepercussions Targettrustsliar Concealmentratherthanfalsification Altruisticlie Priorsuccessfullie Authorizedlie InterpersonalInfluence Definition:symboliceffortstochangeattitudesandbehaviorsofothers TypesofInfluence: Directives Persuasion TheoriesofInfluence LearningTheory(Skinner) o Peopleactto Maximizerewards Minimizepunishments o Operantconditioning o Sociallearning CognitiveDissonanceTheory(Festinger) o Peoplepreferstatesofconsistency o Whentwoormoreelementsaredissonant,thepersonwillacttoreducedissonance bychangingcognitions ValueTheory(Rokeach) o Personalidentityreflectedinvalues o Influencethruappealstovaluesystem SourceCharateristics Rewardpower Coercivepower Expertpower Referentpower Legitimatepower SelfPresentationStrategies Ingratiation Intimidation Selfpromotion Exemplification Supplication ComplianceGainingStrategies Directrequests Hinting Bargaining Pregiving Deception Moralappeals Manipulation Withdrawal Threats StrategySelection Ethicalthreshold: o Personalethicalthreshold Situationalpredictors: o Relationalintimacy o Perceivedbenefit Personalitypredictors: o Machiavellianism o Dogmatism SequentialRequestStrategies TheFootintheDoortechnique(FITD) o Persuadermustsend2sequentialmessages o 1strequestissmall;2ndislarger o Interestedingainingcompliancewith2ndrequest o ExplainedbySelfPerceptiontheory TheDoorintheFacetechnique(DITF) o Initialrequestislargeandrejected;2ndrequestissmaller o Designedtoincreasecompliancewith2ndrequest o Greatereffectswhenrequestsareprosocial,madebysameperson,andfacetoface o Explainedbynormofreciprocity 2RoutestoPersuasion Central o Highcognitiveeffort o Evaluatesinformationbasedonpastexperiencesandpreviousknowledge o Formsopinionaboutmessage o Attitudechangeisaccessible,persistent,predictive Peripheral o Lowcognitiveprocessing o Cuevariables:likeability,credibility,#&lengthofarguments,experts o BandwagonEffect o Attitudechangeisshortterm&weak High Relevance Low Relevance Persuasion Strong Argument Weak Argument High Persuasion Low Persuasion Persuasion Smallgroupinfluence Conformityeffects o Attitudinalandbehavioraluniformity o Realorperceivedpressure SocialInfluence Cognitiveprocessesatworkwhenphysicalrealityisclear o Cognitiveconflict o Informationalandnormativeinfluence: Beingcorrect Socialapproval Cognitiveprocessesatworkwhenphysicalrealityisambigous o Sherif(1933)study: Pinpointsoflightinadarkroom Ifsubjectstogether,judgmentssimilar Afterwards,judgmentspersisted~wereinternalized Socialinfluencehighwhenno"right"behavior 3TypesofConformity Compliance Identification Internalization o Moststableofthreeprocesses o Mostlikelytolastinabsenceofcontrollingagent DefinitionofGroupThink o whendesiretoachieveconsensusoverridesrealisticappraisalofalternatives&causes defectivegroupdecisions GroupThinkRemedies Bringinoutsiders Encouragecriticalexamination Impartialleader Reducehierarchyingroup Brainstorminsmallergroups Thetippingpoint 3Factors: o LawoftheFew o StickinessFactor o PoweroftheContext Lawofthefew Connectors Mavens Salesmen DefinitionofDiffusionResearch:Studyofthespreadofideasandinnovations AdoptersinDiffusiontheory Innovators(venturesome) Earlyadopters(respected) Earlymajority(deliberate) Latemajority(skeptical) Laggards(traditional) Relationships Definitionofarelationship:setofexpectationtwopeoplehavefortheirbehavior basedonthepatternofinteractionbetweenthem 2Kindsofrelationship Impersonal Personal Classificationofpeopleinrelationships: o Acquaintances o Friends o Closefriendsorintimates ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course COM ARTS 272 taught by Professor Humphreys during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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