phy453-ch1(1).pptx - Vern J Ostdiek Donald J Bord 1.1...

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Vern J. Ostdiek Donald J. Bord
1.1 Fundamental Physical Quantities Three basic aspects of the material universe: space, time, matter All physical quantities involve measurements of space, time, the properties of matter
Distance Physical Quantity Metric Units English Units Distance d (or l , w , h ) meter (m) foot (ft) millimeter (mm) inch (in.) centimeter (cm) mile (mi) kilometer (km) a measure of space in one dimension ex: length, width, and height
Distance Table 1.1 page 12 Size/ Distance Metric Units English Units Size of a nucleus 1 × 10 –14 m 4 × 10 –13 in. Size of an atom 1 × 10 –10 m 4 × 10 –9 in. Size of a red blood cell 8 × 10 –6 m 3 × 10 –4 in. Typical height of a person 1.75 m 5.75 ft Tallest building 830 m 2,722 ft Diameter of Earth 1.27 × 10 7 m 7,920 miles Earth Sun distance 1.5 × 10 11 m 9.3 × 10 7 miles Size of our galaxy 9 × 10 20 m 6 × 10 17 miles
Converting Distance Measurements Ex: convert 23 metres to feet Use 1 metre = 3.28 feet Textbook question #4 page 41 One mile is equal to 1609 m. Express this distance in kilometers and in centimeters.
Area Physical Quantity Metric Units English Units Area ( A ) square meter (m 2 ) square foot (ft 2 ) square centimeter (cm 2 ) square inch (in. 2 ) square kilometer (km 2 ) square mile (mi 2 ) hectare acre 2 quantities related to distance area and volume. Area commonly refers to the size of a surface the floor in a room or the outer skin of a basketball.
Volume Physical Quantity Metric Units English Units Volume ( V ) cubic meter (m 3 ) cubic foot (ft 3 ) cubic centimeter (cm 3 or cc) cubic inch (in. 3 ) liter (L) quart, pint, cup milliliter (mL) teaspoon, tablespoon
Time Physical Quantity Metric Units English Units Time ( t ) second (s) second (s) minute (min) minute (min) hour (h) hour (h) Clocks measure time by using a process that repeats. Ex: mechanical clocks use a swinging pendulum. The time it takes to swing back and forth is always the same.
Time DEFINITION Period: The time for one complete cycle of a process that repeats. It is abbreviated T , and the units are seconds, minutes, and so forth. DEFINITION Frequency: The number of cycles of a periodic process that occur per unit time. It is abbreviated f and has units s 1 or hertz (Hz).
Time unit of frequency Mega - metric prefix for 1 million Giga - metric prefix for 1 billion 1 1 Hz 1/s 1 s 91.5 MHz 91,500,000 Hz 2 GHz 2,000,000,000 Hz
Example 1.1 page 14 A mechanical stopwatch uses a balance wheel that rotates back and forth 10 times in 2 seconds. What is the frequency of the balance wheel? frequencynumber of cycles per time10 cycles5 Hz2 sf

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