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Vern J. OstdiekDonald J. Bord
1.1 Fundamental Physical QuantitiesThree basic aspects of the material universe: •space, •time,•matterAll physical quantities involve measurements of •space, •time, •the properties of matter
DistancePhysical QuantityMetric UnitsEnglish UnitsDistance d(or l, w, h)meter (m)foot (ft)millimeter (mm)inch (in.)centimeter (cm)mile (mi)kilometer (km)a measure of space in one dimensionex: length, width, and height
DistanceTable 1.1 page 12Size/ DistanceMetric UnitsEnglish UnitsSize of a nucleus1 × 10–14 m4 × 10–13 in.Size of an atom1 × 10–10 m4 × 10–9 in.Size of a red blood cell8 × 10–6 m3 × 10–4 in.Typical height of a person1.75 m5.75 ftTallest building830 m2,722 ftDiameter of Earth1.27 × 107m7,920 milesEarth–Sun distance1.5 × 1011m9.3 × 107milesSize of our galaxy9 × 1020m6 × 1017miles
Converting Distance MeasurementsEx: convert 23 metres to feetUse 1 metre = 3.28 feetTextbook question #4 page 41One mile is equal to 1609 m. Express this distance in kilometers and in centimeters.
AreaPhysical QuantityMetric UnitsEnglish UnitsArea (A)square meter (m2)square foot (ft2)square centimeter (cm2)square inch (in.2)square kilometer (km2)square mile (mi2)hectareacre2 quantities related to distance•area and •volume. Area commonly refers to the size of a surface•the floor in a room or •the outer skin of a basketball.
VolumePhysical QuantityMetric UnitsEnglish UnitsVolume (V)cubic meter (m3)cubic foot (ft3)cubic centimeter (cm3or cc)cubic inch (in.3)liter (L)quart, pint, cupmilliliter (mL)teaspoon, tablespoon
TimePhysical QuantityMetric UnitsEnglish UnitsTime (t)second (s)second (s)minute (min)minute (min)hour (h)hour (h)•Clocks measure time by using a process that repeats. •Ex: mechanical clocks use a swinging pendulum. •The time it takes to swing back and forth is always the same.
TimeDEFINITIONPeriod: The time for one complete cycle of a process that repeats. It is abbreviated T, and the units are seconds, minutes, and so forth.DEFINITIONFrequency: The number of cycles of a periodic process that occur per unit time. It is abbreviated f and has units s–1or hertz (Hz).
Timeunit of frequencyMega - metric prefix for 1 millionGiga - metric prefix for 1 billion11 Hz1/s1 s91.5 MHz91,500,000 Hz2 GHz2,000,000,000 Hz
Example 1.1 page 14 A mechanical stopwatch uses a balance wheel that rotates back and forth 10 times in 2 seconds. What is the frequency of the balance wheel? frequencynumber of cycles per time10 cycles5 Hz2 sf