ggh2601 book - DIVERSITY AN D DEVELOPM ENT Africa For many Afl.ica is regarded as a place ol natnral clisasters and civil strife clorninate-esiring

ggh2601 book - DIVERSITY AN D DEVELOPM ENT Africa For...

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Unformatted text preview: DIVERSITY AN D DEVELOPM ENT Africa For many. Afl.ica is regarded as a place ol natnral clisasters and civil strife clorninate -esiring jnterdisc current position th diagrarrs and Tony Binns js Ron Lister prolessor of Geography at the Univer.sitl, of Ota_eo. Dunedin, Neu'Zealancl. and visitin-e professorial r.tto'*.it tr. University of Sussex. Brighton, UK. Alan Dixon is Senior Lecturer in Geo-eraphy at the Uni'ersity of worcester. UK. Etienne Ner is Associate professor in the Departrncnt of Geography at the uni.".ersitv of 3l1il;,iJ'iiil;J,Ir,1l|r:iffl*,."iJ o,.u.iate o; ,,,.'r.,,"", ;;';"";.,il1 Africa Diversity and Development Tony Binns, Alan Dixon and Etienne Nel E) Routledoe H\ raytortrranciiroup LONDON AND NEW YORK :: - --r -:.:..I,Ll ; i. . ,'::a ?-,:. >.,:r:Le \lilton Park. Abingdon, Oxon OXlzl'lRN i S n:r.r,tnleou:lv published in the USA and Canada :.r Rrrutlcdge - I I Thir.d Aveuue. Nerv York. NY 10017 Rotrtletlge is an intprint rtf tlte Tt4 lrtr & Frtrnt:is Group, nrt infbrtnu business c 2012 Ton-v Binns. Alan Diron and Eticnne Nel The nght of Tony Bimrs. Alan Diron and Etienne Nel to be identified as authors ol'this u,ork has becn assefted by tliem in accordance u ith sectjons 77 and 78 ol the Cop-vright. Designs and Patents Act 198ii A1l rights resen ed. No par-t of thjs boolt may be leprinted or reprodnced or utilized in any form or b1' any electronic, rlechatlical, ol'other mealls, no\l knou n or hereaftel inventecl, inclucling photocopving and recotding. or in an.uinforrnation storagc or retrie\al s)'stem. ri ithout permission in rl,riting fioni the publishers Trotlemork noric'c: Product or cotporate ranles mav be trademarl<s or registered traclentarks. and are used onlv lor identiication ald explanation u'ithout intent to infringe Briti,\h Li.bt'co)' Cotulogui rtg itt Pul:l it'trtiott Dt rtr A catalogue rccord fot'this book rs ar ailable 1r-ont the Brrtr:h Llbr-ar1 Librtn'y of Congrcs.s Cutdlogirtg in Ptrhlicuritttt Dlttr Binns, fon1,. Alrica i Ton,v Binns. Alan Dixon. and Etienne \el p cl1l "simultaneouslv published in the USA aucl Canada'' T p r erso lncltLdes bibliographical rc1-ererlces and index Social condrtions Ceography 2, Af ica I Alrica Afica. 4 Social conflict Afiica. 5 I Socrrl changeCultural pluralisnr Afr.ica 6. Afr-ica Economic conditions. 7 Economic developmcrt Afi'ica Environnrental conditions. l. Dixon. \1an IT. Ne1. E L. tll DT6.7.856 20 I \trica 8 Title. I 960 dc23 ISBN: 978-0 -115 41367 201 10231'12 1 (hbk) 978 0 4i5 :ll36E 8 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0 203 153.19 9 (ebk) TSBN: Typeset in Times Neu, Rotlan ard Flankliu Gothic bv Keystloke, Station Road, Codsall. \No1lerharnpton .A *?s Mtx Pap6rfom r$ponBlble sourG FSC! C01 3056 Pr-intcd ard bound in Grcat Britain bt' TJ Intcrnational Ltd. PaclsLou. Conrlall Contents vii 1X xi xiii xv Chapter I Africa: continr-Liir .md change 1 Chapter 2 Alrica's people JJ Chapter Afiican environments 6t 3 Cihapter 4 Rural Africa 103 Chapter Urban Afiica 145 Chapter 6 Health und tlcr eloprnertt 199 Cihapter 7 Conflict and post-confl ict 240 Chapter 8 African economie: 211 Chapter 9 Devcloping Africa 3t2 Chapter 10 What future lor Afi'ica? 3s0 -5 Ref brence,s 311 Inclex 406 Plates .1 \.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 31 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 1.4 4.5 I 4.6 4.1 4.8 4.9 Colonial hotLse. Banjul. The Cambia Statue of Cecil Rhodcs in Cape Town, South Africa Bulawayo. Zirnbablve. celebrates independence day Colonial post otTce building in Bamako. Mali 1 T1 l8 18 HIV/AIDS poster, Siera Leone 39 Grandmother takes care of orphaned grandchildren in Sor-rth Afi'ica Ante-natal clinic in rr-Lral Siena Leone Children in Freetou,n. Sierra Leone Flash flooding on r-ural road in central Mali Arid landscape, Mali 1t Erosion gully in northern Nigeriit Boy and donkey with urban refuse for peri-urban fields, Kano, Nigeria Intensive wheat production outside Lusaka, Zambia Agriculture in Ethiopia Lrsing traditional technology Traditional irigation in West Pokot, Kenya Boy gathering wild lonio in Malr during the 'hungry season' Parlicipatory held sketch of a wetland larming calendar from western Ethiopia Fulani pastoralists watering cattle from a i,r,,ell in northetr Ni-ceria Fishing a major source of inconie on the Zanbezi flooclplarn Luo fishing boat in the Kenr.an scctol olLake \ jctoria ConstrLLctior.r usinq euc.rl\ptus poles tion the surrtrur.Ldmg hillsicle in Addis \baba. Ethropia 4.10 Rural lir elihood dir ersificaticln in Ugtrndtr: \\ ollcn ntake nrats c)l lll tt2 ll6 120 121 122 128 129 r32 sedges coilccted fiom uetland areas Women harvesting ricc in The Gambia 4.12 Traditional granaries. Mali 5.1 Urban larmer in Kano, Nigeria 5.2 Urban agriculture. central Freetown. Sierra Leone Ruins at Carlhage. nofthern Tunisia 5.3 5.4 Ancient mosqlle in Mopti, Mali 5.5 Infbnr,al housing in Mathare Valley, Nairobi, Kenya 5.6 Central business district, Nairobi, Kenya 5.1 Duncan Village squatter camp, East London, South Africa 5.8 Scavenging on municipal rubbish tip in Freetown. Sierra Leone Johannesburg CBD. South Africa 5.10 Cape Town waterfiont and Table Mountain A girl in Sierra Leone parlicipates in TNICEF's community-led total 6.1 sanltatr on progralrrne s3 16 19 86 trorl 4.r1 5.9 43 I -1+ 135 r39 159 159 t64 r65 llt 113 \t9 183 r88 190 215 viii . List of Plates the burden of fuelwood collection Women disproportionatcly share in EthioPia .--- ^ N,{-r..r' Malarvt rvith solid waste rn Lilongu'e' Pollution If u 6.2 6.3 't""'lt Leone 6.;+ HIV/AIDS eclucation poster in Sierta Ethiopia 6.5 1.1 '7 2 A man cher'i ing khat in westerll Leone shorelling gravel in easteru Sierra coup of rlilitary the conrremolate to Arch 22' Banjr'rl' The Gambia Diamond 2r6 218 221 233 2.48 -i"Jts 2s0 l)r 1.3 261 1.1 1.5 265 E.2 292 294 294 8.3 298 8.4 299 8.5 301 8.6 302 306 310 )/- t 8.1 E.7 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.3 L).4 9.5 Dttrban CBD. South Afi-ica South Africa Wanvick Jtrnction market' Durban' AnNGoertensionagerrtinEthiopiadelir'ersspaciesandener:gy-efficient sto\,es to a ntral commumtY Cape ft"t"uta flor'vels at Flori er'\/alley' Westem Packing sustailrably Province. South Ati'ica 10.2 Tazaruraihvay tetminus in Zambia i0.3 Chinese investment in Zambia 10.1 l0 4 Leone Anti-cormption poster in Sierra 330 335 JJO -)J / 365 361 369 J /J Figures l.l a 1.lb 1.2 Africa today: countries and capitals Africa today,: the tr-ue size of Africa 3.-5 J The Ganrbia 1.3a Historical Atiica: I 880 I .3b Historical Af ica: 191 4 1.3c Historical Africa: I 95 7 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.1 2 5 t4 15 t6 The Demo_erapliic Transitior Model Population pvranrid of the Democratic Rcpublic of thc Congo.2005 Population pyrarnid ol Mar.Lritius, 2005 52 Colonizability olAfrica 62 Biomes of Alrica Le sotlio 3.6 3.7 3.E 3.9 leras cLLltivation in SLrdan 4.1 Afiica's r-Lrban and rrtral popr-rlatrons conrparecl 4.2 The sustainable lirelihoods h'ar.reuorlr 4-3 Agricr-Llt,re as a percertage oIGDP in selccted Af ican courtries 4.1 Crop yields in Af ica. t96l 2009 4.5 The fanrring year in Sierra Leone 4.6 Fulani calendar 5. I Capital cities 5.2 Nigcria: states 5.3 AbLrja, Nigeria: the new f'ederal capital 5.4 Kar-ro. Nigeria 6.1 Distribution olcountries by lit'e expectancy 6.2 The causes olmatemal mofiality ir Atiica 6.3 Coverage .,vith improved drinking ."r,ater sources, 2006 6.4 Coverage u,ith improved sanitation tacrlities, 2006 6.5 Urban and rural diffcrences in access to drinking water 6.6 Urban and rural dillerences in santtatron 6.7 HIV prevalence in adulrs ( 15 49) in Afiica. 2007 6.8 Estimated number of people living rvith Hlv in sLrb-Sahara, .\tr..i-, t9t)0 2001 2005-2007 53 63 65 Location of Illubabor Zone, Ethiopia Hadejia-Nguru rvetlancls. Nigena Afi-ica. precipitation in January and.luly Desertification in Afiica (LTNCOD) Kofyar hon,eland. Nigeria 6.1) HIV prevalence 52 among 15 24-ycar-oJds. by sex. selectecl vi..r,ir ,.- 69 lt 75 80 88 92 t04 107 109 110 114 124 149 151 152 167 206 208 210 2tt 2t) 2li ttl x. List of figures 6.l0Percentageolpersons'"vithadr,ance<iHlVreceivingAR\;dr.ussirr 6. I I selected ctrunlrics Deaths through inj ury in Afi-ica, 2008 .7|NumberofA-fricancountriesengagedinarmeclconflict.l9502008 T,2MilitarysperrdingaSapercentageofGDPirrselectedAfricancolttttLies. 9.1 92 9.3 l0 I 1990 2008 Rostow's 'stages of Econorr-iic Crovr'th' Lakc Volta in Ghana DePendencY theorY in Plactice Flor'r'er Valley in its regional context 225 2-i 1 215 153 321 325 363 Tables .1 .2 2\ I 1 2.2 2.3 3.1 Aflrica: key change Key denrographic details aboLrt Afiica: developnrent Forest statistics for Afr-ican countries u,ith total forest areas over million hectares. 2005 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.1 201 212 Density of tl.re hcalth u orklorce per I olr() f oluL.itron rn ,relected Atiican citic:. )11 lc)9-l countries. 200.1 _-1 / Minor and rnajor anr-red corrflict: in \tl.i.-:r. 1r)irl llli )12 Surlmary of conflict impacts on dil-tereut >e ctrrr: Refugees and internally displaced people rn selecte.l \fi'rc:rn ctr,u.tllie:. 256 272 2009 Afi-ica: key economic indicators Sor,rth Africa and other signiflcant Aliican econunrie: Comparative statistics for selected Afi-ican counnie: The fourteen SADC countries 215 :to 218 28r African countries with the largest Gross Dotlestic Product Afiican countries with the largest CDP per capita CDP per capita for Afiica's most populated countries 281 282 African countries u,ith highest annlLal gro\\rth in per capita GDP. 282 1990 1999 and 2000-2005 8.9 Afiican countries with 8.10 Contributions of agricLLlture, industry and services to GDP and 1990-1 999 and 1 r56 200 sanltittlon 6.6 8.1 136 148 201 Percentage of peoplc u ith access to sen ices and facilities in some 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 118 Comparison of 1990 and 2005 matemal morlality rates The classilication of improved' and 'unin'tproved' u"ater sources and 6.5 1.1 1.2 1.3 38 44 94 Farming systems of Africa Positive and negative effects of rLrral livelihood diversification Africa's ten largest cities in 2008 Ghana: employment and unemployment by gender, 1998 1999 The leading causes of death in Af ica (projections for 2008) Life erpectancy and inf-ant mortality rates in Africa 1.2 21 25 35 prospects and settlement Kcy dcn,ographic details about Africa: life and economic 10 1.t statistics Afi-jca: kcy statistrcs Key demographic details abor-Lt Africa: total population and population lo'"vest annual growth in per capita GDP, 2000-2005 er.nployrnent Employment in agricultrLrc. industry and services. 1991 and 282 286 2001 281 x ii . List of tables \ 1: 3 8.14 8.15 8.16 EI 8.17 9.1 9.2 9.3 \tiican countries depenclent on a single prin,ary cclmmodity for erport ealnings (annuai a\erage oferports, in S. 1992 1997) Crowth rate olthe agricultural sector, 2002 2006 Proven oi1 reseru'es and oil prodlLction fiom African coLrntries. 2009 South Atiica: gold prodr,rction aucl employment, 1975-2006 h.rternational tourisrr leccipts and toLrrist arrivals in selcctccl countries (rvith large or fast-gror,i,ing tourist industries) Kenya: intemational tourist an'ivals and toLrrism earnings Key development indicators Development theory and practice or er time The Millennium Deleloprnent Goals 288 289 193 296 30rl 305 314 317 1+-) Boxes 1.1 The Gambia: colonial legacY 1.2 Africa's boundaries I .3 Leadership in post-independent Nigeria 1.4 Pot'tugucsedecolorrizlttitrn 1.5 CeLrta and Melill:i: Spanish enclaves in Africa 1.6 South Africa: reducing inequality in the 'rainbor'v nation' 2.1 HIVIAIDS in solttherl Alrica 2.2 OverpopulittedKenya 2.3 Underpopulatecl Mali: feeding the people 3.I Exporting \\ ater fi'om Lesotho to South Afilca 3.2 South Ati'ica's Working fbr Water Programrrre 3.3 Wetlands in Ethiopia and Nigeria -1.,1 The Nile Basin lnitiatir 3.5 3.6 3.1 4.1 4). 4.3 4.4 e Coping r'r'ith a marginal enl'irontrent in Burkina Faso People ancl environment on the .los Plateau. Nigeria The Congo Basin Forest Fund The strstainable r-r-rral ljvelihoods approach Cash crops or lood croPs? Indigenous agricultnral systcnrs in Siera Leone Pastoralists atrd pressltres in norlhern Nigeria 4.,5 Fair trade fbl Aflica's poor farmers .i.6 Non-tirnber forest products lor livelihood de\elopment in Ethiopia 4.1 The role of CM technologies in Africa's rural del'elopment -5.1 Cairo: grou,th and der'elopnrent in Africa's lirst mega-city 5.2 Urban gtorvth in Nigeria 5.3 StrLrctr-Lral adjustment and nt'ban employmcnt in Charla -5.4 Urban agriculture: ensuring tbod and household security 5.-5 Housing and infrastructr-rre in Lagos and Nairobt 5.6 A nerv vision fbr urban cler"elopment in South Aliica Heatth and the Millennium Developtlent Goals in Atiica 6. t 6.2 Conrmunity-1ed total sanitation (CLTS) in Sier-ra Leone 6.3 Hl\: and AIDS in Uganda: a success story'? 6.1 Khat-cheri'ing in the Hom of Africa: a mental and social l.rcalth issue' 6.5 The lirttrre of Alrica's health systems'? The ouagadougotl Declarlttiorl I 1.2 1.3 1 .1 1 on Prirlat'r' Health Care Corrflict irr the Great Lakes region The ciullict ilr Dartirr: ethnic tcnsions or climate chatrsc ' Regional peacckeepinir: the role of ECO\IOC in Lrbelil jct recLrrr\lrut II''rr The \EP-\D strate!l\ lbr post-confl 1 E l1 t9 2t 30 40 46 48 64 61 68 12 82 87 95 106 11i 1t3 123 130 132 1,+0 1.+6 150 l,s-+ 1,i 8 r6s r 8- l(-)(r tll xtv . List of boxes .5 8.I 8.2 8.3 1 lndigenous justice aud reconciliation'. gacoL'ct coufts in Rr'i'anda South Africa in Africa Growth withotLt development in EqtLatorial Guinea Supporting the agricultural scctor: a vital strategy for econonlic grou'th and poverty 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2 9.3 91 9.5 l0.l 10.2 10.3 lller 266 214 283 290 irrtiotr Changing fbrlr.Lnes for South Afi-ica's gold-mining industry Cape Verde: clevelopment in an island economy Tourism in Kenya The -East Af ican Groundnut Schelre The Volta Rivel Project LIjamoct, villagization and rural development in Tanzania Local economic developr.nent in DLrr:ban. South Africa Comrnunity bcekeeping in Bondolfi. Zimbabr.ve Afiica and the global recc-ssrotr 295 'Afiica nrnst nnitel': thc Afl'ican The Afiican Renarssat.ice atlil tlre Nerr Patlnelship for Afl'icil's 354 302 30,1 318 322 325 -r-lJ -1-J6 35r Unior.r Dcr elopn-rcnt (\EP-\ D 356 ) florier erptttls trom Afiica 10.,1 Corporate social respollsibility and 10,5 A reu et'a for-\tl-rca'l Euqa-inc uith BRICs: tlle case ofChina Sotrth 362 366 Preface Writing a book on Alrica is at the same time both exciting and fiustrating. Exciting, because there is just so mr-rch goiug on in this continent of fitty-three countries. and t-mstrating because it is qr,rite irnpossible to cover everything and, since the pace olchange is so rapid, by the time thc book is published it is lnevitable that furlher changes r,vill have taken place. Although one ma,v f-eel one l<norr,.s this continent r,vel1 and. collectively. u.e have a total of ovcr seven clecades of experience teaching and researching on and in differcnt parts of Atiica - there is never a shorlage of en_{aging revelations. As u,e write this Preface and prepare to despatch the typescript to the ptLblishers. Norlh Atiica is in funnoi1 tis popular democratic r-Lprisin-rrs attetrpt to overlhrou,,dictatorial regimcs in Tunisia and Egy'pt, u,hile in Libya u,hat arrounts to a civil war is in progress, as Colonel Muamrnar Gaddatr attempts to cling on to the power he has held for forly-two ycars. Elsewhere in the continent derlocratic elections have been helcl in Nigeria, Afi-ica's rnost popr-rlous state. alld a relerendum has been conducted among the population in the south ol Sudan, the continent's largest state, which has indicated ovenvhehring grassroots supporl tbr breaking atvay lrotl the north and lorming a separate nation. On the economic and social fronts, il'hile Afiica still has rrany olthe lvorld's pool'cst countries. some Afiican statcs hilve experienced rapid economic growtl.r in recent years and hal'e actually made some signlflcant progress totvards achieving the Millemium Development Goals and reducing povetty. Metrnlvhile, Sor-rthAfrica, the continent's 'economic powerhouse'. u'as in April20l I invited to Beling to join a meeting of the leadels of Brazil. Russia, India and China in a sumnrit ol the so-called BRIC group of rapidly cleveloping nations. We are in no c'loubt that in the decades ahead Africa rvill be the continent to r,r,atch in ten.ns of econorlic and social progress. and wilI hopefully be engaging on more equal terms with the rest of the r.vorld. A book such as this is. rve believe. a tin,ely offering, both to dispel stereotypical perceptions and to raise awareness olAfi'ica's considerable diversity and potential. The book lrasitsoriginsinancarlicrbook.h'opicol A/ric'ct,lvrittcnin l994byTonyBinns. Inthis neu'bool<. Tony has joined with Alan Dixon and Etienne Nel to consider the cntire continent: with a mlLch broader scope and grcater depth. this bool< is vcry diff-erent fi'or.n the earlier one. OverthelollorvingtenchaptcrsvnehaveattemptedtoexaminemanyaspectsofAfl'ic.t: diversity, ancl l<ey issues r,"hich play a role in atfecting progress ancl the qLralitr oiiit.. experienced by Africa's people. One olthe key aims of this book is to drarr atterrj.r.r :\l thc cornplex relationships bctu'ccn porrerty and development in Atlica. and thc \.1r.r -.: f actors that influence this. In fburulating an appropriate structure for the botrk \\ r. uti.. ..,. attheontsetnottoinchrdeseparatechaptersonsuchtopicsasgendet.ilrltl pLr,1.i;.5 '-. uefirnrlvbelievethattheseissuesareabsolutelvcr-ucial in r-rnclcrstarrt|r.1_{:1,: -:i r ,:-i'-, olthe present situation and luture prospects. thcr at dittlent ar-c consicler.ed:n.L--l' .-. , 1.,.r,: : .. : ,. ,, r ,- - pojnts throLrghont the book: tbl examplc sL'1ldir .1.iri..S ancl politrcs rr |elation to hrstorical e\ents. crr|1lict lr:t.t;;,,:.. xvi . Preface that uhile indir idLLal chapters focr-rs on specific themes such as the elr it'ontrt.'rtt. ptrpttlation and healtl.r there are actuall)' nTany linkages betvn-een thettt ": , l,lr.rc:r ha: bcett perceir,ed at diflelent l.rornts rn tirll. -sltg, , , j -- -- ,: .1 )tL'l'eat\ f e\ hllr u' trtir'tl ab:i.:t:d i:.llltl.': l;ld -- .-:..::-!irng qr,l nrn,-+sier -rr.,-.-,rilrl.t,rrv ir- r,ri.rtt>r',rr (ripattents and ptocesses, Th: The iit-r.rF rriht:ttrn' iiis siqrtrn.-ritcr: - : .ir:pine present-day Alrica and in looktng lor\\ i1r'.1 ttr the tittlLre - - u ':,.,:tiion 1s the focus of Chapter 2, in rvhich \\e e\plor.e it rilrlge olclerr.ro- - ,'.tLrrtS a|il otEcial policies tou,ards population gro\th. Both ptr.itne and - . ,- ,.r.. pollulatiofl scenarios are considered in the context of rmpror ins ec,rntrtuic .-:-.. .:rdurin-s problems, such as po\/efiy and the HIV/AIDS pandert.itc - : -..: - ,- . r-.1: -1 r-s concenred u,ith Africa's environments, and partictLlarly'the inrportant -..:.-I\\eenpeopleandenvironment.Followingconsiderationoftheneedtoadapt r'.--,- lhanoe. other aspects of management and adaptation to et-n'iro1tme1lt are e\atttTi,r- llain thnrst of the chapter is that we need to achieve a more detailed appler-. .ripeople environment relationships, rather than merely see Afticals as fr\\i\e rr i rrilrnifbnnly harsh environmellts. : .:..'f,'s mral sector is where the largest nurnber olthe continent's people sti11 1ir e and .. ...nd it is the subject olChapter,l. Follow'ing a consideration of land tenure. diff-erent -. ':-. .rimral 1ir.-elihoods are then eramined. Issues snch as rural diversification. r.tlarketrD-s .:..: '.rrd securitv are discLLssed and eramples of rura1 development strategies are cr:itical11'' -: e,,r ed r : . stil1 predominantly rr-Lra1. Africa is rapidly urbanizing. In Chapter'5 se crrn\tiica's tou,,ns and cities, their origins and recent rapid grorvth, and the implicatrons r.rirgrorithfortheprovisionolshclter.fbodsecurityandemployment.Thechanging .hrrr-LSh .r;.r ol urban environments is discr-rssed. u'ith a focus on the problerrs of delir elinc basic such as water. sanitation and llo\\'er. Health is a l<ey influence on the qr.ralitv ollife. and in Chapter 6 wc rel...
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