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11011The Atomic Nature of MatterConceptual Physic Instructor’s Manual, 10thEditionThe Atomic HypothesisCharacteristics of AtomsAtomic ImageryAtomic StructureThe ElementsThe Periodic Table of the ElementsIsotopesCompounds and MixturesMoleculesThe Placebo EffectAntimatterDark MatterSUGGESTED LECTURE PRESENTATIONHundreds of years ago, people had no way of finding out, and they instead carried on withphilosophical speculation. Not until “modern” chemistry in the late 1700s did people begin to getindirect evidence of some basic order in the combinations of things. The first real “proof” thatthere were atoms was given by Einstein in 1905, the same year he published his paper onrelativity. He calculated what kind of motion there ought to be in Brownian motion, based onideas we’ve considered already, like energy and momentum conservation, and the idea of heat asatomic motion. Many of the “heavies” in physics at that time didn’t believe in atoms untilEinstein’s work.Smallness of Atoms: an atom is as many orders of magnitude smaller than a person as anaverage star is larger than a person—so we stand between the atoms and the stars. The size of anatom is to the size of an apple as the size of an apple is to the size of the Earth. So if you want toimagine an apple full of atoms, think of the Earth, solid-packed with apples.The wave nature of matter—the fuzziness in the distinction between particles and waves at theatomic level—that “solid” particles seem to be congealed standing waves of energy.The photo of individual atoms taken by Crewe and associates in Figure 11.4 on page 214 ishistorically significant. It was the first of many to follow.Recycling of Atoms: You can lead into the idea of more molecules in your lungs than there arebreaths of air in the world and if you put a drop of ink in a bathtub full of water, that you know

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