intro to korean civ lecture notes.pdf - The Classical...

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Unformatted text preview: The Classical Era (ca. 300-ca. 850) ● Political History ○ Around ca. 476 the kingdom of Goguryeo was at peak power, having control of most of the north korea, manchuria ○ The southern part was divided into Paekche, Silla and Gaya ○ Divided into Silla and Balhae by ca. 830 ○ The Three Kingdoms (300 ca. - 500) ■ Paekche power at its peak (late 4th) ■ Goguryeo power at its peak (5th c) ■ King CHinhung (“Truly Ascendant”, r. 540-576) of Silla ■ Goguryeo resistance against invasions by China’s Sui Dynasty (581-618) and the Tang Dynasty (618-907) ■ Silla-Tang alliance’s victories over Paekche (660) and Goguryeo (668) ■ Silla’s victory over the Tang Dynasty ● Ancient Korea and Japan ○ Mimana Nihonfu Theory → no longer taken seriously by academic scholars ■ Discredited bc throughout much of the three kingdoms period the Yamato/Wa court was too far from Korea ○ Horse Rider Theory ■ 1940’s when Imperial Japan ws at war with US, etc., a historian postulated this theory according to which a cavalry of people with horse riding technology rode down through Korea creating a series of states on their way to founding the Wa or Japanese clan ■ When the theory was first introduced to the current ruling emperor, he listened with keen interest ■ Only after 1945, after the war, was the theory published and established ■ Main criticisms of this theory is that it oversimplifies the process ● Silla ○ Bone-Rank System ■ Holy Bones (songgol) ● Only people eligible to ascend the throne ● 7th cent., male Holy Bones died out ● 9th cent. A female (Queen Seon Duk) ascended the throne ■ True Bones (chin’gol) ● Goguryeo, Baekche, Silla aristocrats ● After the Holy Bones died out they started ascending the throne ■ Six Head-Ranks (yuktup’um) ● Highest among this rank were those who were educated and served in government under the Holy and True Bones classes ● Lower classes were lower class peasants, etc. ○ During Silla period the most valid last name was ‘Kim’ , which is why so many Koreans have the ‘Kim’ last name ○ Monarchy ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ● Kyongju, the Capital Provinces Controlled a large part of Korea (Southern ⅔) Established aristocrats in several posts to maintain control At this time, sig. Population of Korea’s population were slaves ■ Slaves were usually descended from prisoners of war During pre modern era, it was almost more preferable to be a slave Ancient Silla tombs looked like mounds in the grass ○ ○ Parhae ○ Dearth if record ○ Korguryo’s successor state ○ Aristocracy descended from that of Koguryo’s ■ We know b the list of surnames from Koguryo ○ Central Bureaucracy modeled after that of Tang China ■ In this part of the world, it is now evident that the most sophisticated and developed nation was China ■ Tang China also influences various other states in the far east (Japan, etc.) ○ Local affairs managed by Malgal and other tribal leaders ○ Lower Population density compared to Silla ■ Controlled much more territory than Silla, but population was much more thinly spread out ○ Modes of production other that agriculture ■ Livestock production was also very important ○ Moved its capital many times → probably less centralized than Silla ○ Because it was not as an attractive piece of land (cold weather, etc) did not have to worry as much about invasion Culture ○ Confucianism ■ Key Concepts regarding of universal moral hierarchy ● Three Cardinal Virtues ○ And individual must serve his/her ruler with loyalty ○ Filial piety ○ The responsibility of being higher up on the chain ■ The higher up you are, the more responsibility you have ● Five Moral Imperatives ○ Ruler and subject must be guided by righteousness ○ Father and Son relationship must be guided by proper report ( genuine emotional bond between them) ○ Husband and Wife must be guided by separation of functions ○ ○ Elder and younger brother must be guided by proper recognition of…(respecting your elders, calling them hyung, obba, etc) ○ This was all mainly to maintain a organized society ■ Confucian influences ● Four Books and Five Classics ○ Standard works for people to study ● History compilation ○ Confucianism placed a strong emphasis on historical record keeping ○ According to Confucian values, the history is a past in which one can draw lessons from ● Honoring the founding rules ■ Hwarang (literally ‘flower lads’) ● Fellowship of aristocratic young men of Silla ○ Devoted to martial training and religious rituals ○ Travelled together honing martial skills, but also sacred sites ● Won’gwang -->Buddhist monk (542-640)’s Five Secular Injunctions: Every Hwarang must follow ○ Every Hwarang must serve the king with loyalty (Confucian influence) ○ Serve their parents with Filial piety (Confucian influence) ○ Must maintain genuine fidelity and friendship (Confucian influence) ○ Must refrain from senseless killing (Buddhist influence) ○ Never retreat in battle ■ Why Koreans see Confucianism in such a negative light ● Mainly due to Korean Culture, not actually solidly based in Confucian teachings ● Much of Confucian analects don’t emphasize the negative aspects associated with Confucianism in Korea Buddhism ■ Key Concepts ● Samsara ○ A soul goes through an endless cycle of reincarnations ● Karma ○ Present state of life is a consequence of the persons past life ● Nirvana ○ Ultimate goal of Buddhism → transcending Samsara ■ Boddhi Satva ● People who can attain nirvana, but stay behind to help others ■ ○ Mahayana Buddhism ● Strong emphasis on the clergy ● Buddhist clergy are very distinct from the rest of society ■ Five Doctrinal (Kyo) Schools ● Each of them put very strong emphasis on intellectual study and understanding of various Buddhist texts ■ Pure Land Buddhism ● All that is necessary for one to achieve salvation is a sincere honest faith in Amitabha Buddha ● Addressed the spiritual needs of the general population ■ Impact of Buddhism on Silla Society ● Buddhism did not fight or persecute the already existing Shamanism ● Important impact of Buddhism was the official banning of human sacrifice ● Also played a role in the ideology of protecting the nation and the state ● Served as a stabilizer, because of the ideology of the cycle of life and made people more satisfied with their current status ● Launched a whole new artistic phenomenon Daosim ■ Key concepts ● Yin and Yang -- Taiji (“Great Ultimate”) ○ Accounts for all things the way they are in the universe, not just material, but ideas as well ○ Two opposing forces ○ Daosim teaches that yin and yang are in a constant state of flux (push and pull) ○ Universe is in a constant state of flux of yin and yang ○ Both forces are equally important ● Five Elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, water) ○ All things in the cosmos (including ideas) can be accounted for by the five elements ○ Wood is eventually succeeded by fire, fire by earth, etc. ○ Associated with the succession of dynasties as well ■ Silla (associated with metal) was succeeded by Goryeo (associated with water) → cycle ● Geomancy (Feng Shui, “winds and water”) ○ Topography is based on ethosphere, it's a living thing ○ Depending on how and where important structures are built, that location can affect the success or failures of the succeeding ppl/enterprise, etc. ○ Terrain can affect the future ■ ○ Daoist influence limited in Korea ● Limited to certain concepts or ideas that affected other philosophies and/or influenced the art ● Daosim in China was associated as the common people’s religion ■ Common Daoist motifs in Korean art Literary Culture ■ Woodblock printing ● Piece of wood carved with the text ■ Literary Chinese as the writing system favored by the elite ● This would remain true until the late 19th century ■ Idu ● Indigenous writing system devised in Silla ● Recorded korean words with corresponding Chinese characters ● Made some accommodations for the special grammatical needs of spoken Korean language ■ Three foundations of traditional Sino-Korean learning - literature (mun), history (sa), and thoughts (ch’ol) ● In Chinese history, much of these three concepts were combined The Early Medieval Period (850-1170) ● Political History ○ Silla-Koryo transition, 850-1019 ■ Ch’oe Ch’iwon (857-n.d.) and declining Silla ● Many Ch’oe surnames studied in China ● Ch’oe was sent to CHina to study and served in the Tang gov. ○ He eventually returned to Korea and served in the gov. ○ Tried to implement a system reform that chose people on their abilities ○ Was thwarted by the True Bones society that wished to keep the status quo ■ Rise of local strongmen (hojok) ● Became more and more independent, even disobeying the central government at times ● Eventually became powerful enough to establish their own kingdoms ● One strongman named Kyungwon established a Later Baekche (don’t confuse with original Baekche) ○ It can be assumed that the original Baekche meant something important to Kyungwon and his people ● Another strongman named Gongye ○ Was an illegitimate son of a king ○ King ordered that he was to be put to death ○ Initially became a Buddhist monk ○ ■ ■ ■ Eventually secured his own following and kingdom named Goguryeo Later Three Kingdoms 900-936 ● Silla was the weakest ● This time period was mostly a strong rivalry between Later Baekche and Later Goguryeo ● Gongye eventually became more and more erratic and tyrannical and was killed during a coup from his generals ○ Was succeeded by a general named Wanggun (King Taejo) and he established the Koryo Dynasty ● Silla king surrendered to Koryo dynasty The consolidation of Koryo dynastic rule, 936-1019 ● Surface level unification ● After Wanggun’s death there was political instability b/c he had so many sons from the different women he had married for alliances ● Wanggun’s successor Kwangjong implemented the government examination system ○ Based on the knowledge of Chinese classics and ability to apply that knowledge to policies ○ Took practical measures to weaken the economic positions of enemies ■ Save Review Act ○ After Kwangjongs death his successors took further measures to centralize gov ■ Stipend land law ● Gave land to those who served the state ○ All land belonged to the state and if you served the gov. you were given land ● This kind of system never tended to work well in Korean history ○ b/c after a while, the gov. Is unable to take the land back and they eventually run out of land to give Wars with Liao (Khitan people) (993-1019) ● As soon as Koryo stability was established, they were set on a crash course with the Khitans ○ Khitans was the nomad group that destroyed Palhae ● King Taejo considered the Khitans Koryo’s mortal enemy ● The wars ended with a firm Koryo victory ○ Khitans invaded with about 100,000 troops and Koryo retaliated with twice as many ○ After, the Khitans never attacked Koryo again ■ ■ ● Koryo order complete: stability and crisis, 1019-1170 ● Limited contacts with Japan, where the court lost power and the country became decentralized ● Clashes with Jurchens (descended from Magal) ○ Had an on/off relationship with Koryo ○ Continued expanding and won against the Koryo forces twice ○ Koryo went full force against them and but eventually they found themselves in the same initial position ● Yi Chagyom Rebellion (1126) ○ Part of the Aristocrat society that had been there for years ○ Had several marital ties to the royal house ○ Decided to take the throne for himself and tried to take advantage of the fact that the new king was a child ○ He was banished and never heard from again after failing ○ His rebellion marked the start of the political instability in this time period ● Myoch’ong Rebellion (1135-1136) ○ Monk who rebelled against the Koryo court ○ He and his supporters wanted to move the Koryo capital from Kaesong to Pyongyang ○ He reasoned that the reason why Koryo was being bullied around by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty was because of the energy of Kaesong was weak? ○ He believed that by moving the capital to Pyongyang, which had more energy, Koryo would experience a resurgence ● Civil-military conflict since the Koryo-Liao War ○ Unification of Koryo was established quite earlier than most other countries (935) Society ○ Central and local elites ■ Aristocracy ● Drew its membership from all parts of Korea ■ Consisted of civil and noble officials ■ Local functionaries ​had a reasonable shot at passing the government examination and become a government official and make their way into the aristocracy ■ Yangban ○ Commoner and slaves ■ Hardship of commonres during Silla-Koryo transition period ■ Obligations of commoners in the Koryo Period ● ○ ○ ○ Rent ○ Most commoners were tenant farmers ● Tribute tax ○ Usually collected in clothe ● Corvee ○ Physical labor ○ Male btwn 16-50 years of age were subjected to physical labor ● Military service ■ Commoners with special obligations to the state ■ Hardship of commoners in the Koryo Period ■ Hereditary slaves ■ Most commoners were farmers Gender and Kinship ■ Royal succession ■ Surname usage ● As of 900, usage of surnames in Silla was still limited ● Koreans who visited or worked with the Chinese often usually adopted a surname as not to be associated with the Chinese ● Each surname was associated with a particular locality ● Surname was generally passed down patrilineally ■ Marriage customs ● Uxorilocal marriage ● Close kin marriage Confucianism ■ Overall functions ● Appreciated and implemented as an ideology that shaped proper social norms ● Inspired historical record keeping ■ Government service examinations ■ Government schools ■ Private academies ● Increasingly favored by the aristocracies ● Private schools generally provided better networking opportunities for the students ● Increasing number and popularity of private schools gradually led to the decline of public education Buddhism ■ Meditational (ko. Son, Ja. Zen) Schools ● One must experience an enlightening experiences to achieve enlightenment ■ Doctrinal-meditational Buddhist divide in early Koryo ● 1st major effort to heal the divide was by monk yuchon who was originally born a prince ■ Relations with the state and society ● Had to be tested to become part of the buddhist clergy ● Wealthy religion ■ Woodblock printing of the tripitaka ● Government sponsored project to carve the complete tripitaka ○ Geomancy ■ Basic concept ■ Toson (fl. Late 9th c.) ● Popularized this idea with buddhist ideas of accumulating merit ○ Literature ■ Hyangga (“native songs”) ■ Classical (or literary) Chinese ■ Kim Pusik and his ​History of the Three Kingdoms ( Samguk sagi, 1145 ) ● Literary official who suppressed myochong rebellion The Late Medieval Period ● Political History ○ Military Rule (1170-1270) ■ Military leaders who gained power didn’t destroy the civil aristocracy, they collaborated instead and eventually intermarried ○ Mongol Overloraship (1259-1356) ■ In 1206 Genghis Khan (Temujin) brought all Mongolian tribes under his rule ● By the time of his death the Mongolian empire encompassed most of eastern/northern Asia ■ Mongols were basically unbeatable wherever they went ● Extremely mobile ● Very lightly armed but deadly Mongol cavalry men could make it across Asia in the span of a few weeks ● Mongols weren’t picky about birthrights, hereditary, ect. But instead valued the individual on what they could do/talents ● This way they were able to adapt many different styles of combat ● When they laid siege they usually demanded immediate surrender ● However, they never really acquired naval military skill ● Once the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe the Europeans were at a huge disadvantage ○ Feudally divided ○ And the Knights usually wore very heavy suits of armor that made them sitting targets for the Mongols ● Tended to just adopt the religion that was most dominant in the conquered region ■ ○ Koryo actually tried to confront the Mongols in open cavalry warfare and learned the hard way that they shouldn’t do that ■ Mongols laid waste to the countryside ■ Koryo court moved the capital from Kaesong to Kangwa island ■ Entire kingdom of Koryo suffered tremendously from this time period ■ Many officials advocated that Koryo should just come to terms with the Mongols ■ Koryo finally surrendered to Mongols ● Kublai Khan was supposedly overjoyed that Koryo had surrendered ● And he complied to some of Koryo’s requests ● And from that point on every Koryo ruler married a Mongol Princess ● From then on there was a marriage tie between the two empires ● Themarraige union actually facilitated the Mongols interference in Koryo’s affairs ■ Of the many demands Mongols made to Koryo, they had to give up portions of land such as Jeju Island, etc. ● Also had to provide silk, and finery and falcons/falconers ● Most difficult demand Koryo had to satisfy for the Mongols was the demand for unmarried virgin women to the Mongol court ■ After Genghis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire eventually became decentralized ● East Asia became under the rule of the Yuan Dynasty ● Although Koryo did maintain some degree of autonomy, they were still part of the Yuan Dynasty Liberated from the Mongols but plagued by other troubles, 1356-1392 ■ King Gongmin decided to reassert Koryo Autonomy after a group of his commanders came back from Yuan dynasty and reported their findings ● As he went forward with his effort to fully reassert Koryo authority he faced many different difficulties ○ By that time the Koryo Military was essentially nonexistent and had to rely on private armies ○ Koryo had to weather attacks from Yuan as punishment, the Jurchens, and pirates as well ○ During this period of constant warfare some Koryo officials started becoming very powerful ■ Ex. Lee Sunggae was from northeastern Korea ● King Gongmin also had to deal with powerful Koryo officials that were still loyal to the Yuan dynasty ○ To combat this he placed his trust in a Buddhist monk named Shindon ○ ● ● ● ● This monk put much effort into advancing younger more modern minded confucian officials ○ However, the other aristocrat officials were too powerful and Gongmin was forced to put Shindon to death After King Gongmin lost his wife, he was supposedly just lost and excessive grieving for his wife and lost his will to govern ○ In 1374 Gongmin was eventually assassinated During the reign of his successor, the power in favor of the Yuan dynasty was more or less reinstated By 1388 Koryo had recovered much of the territory lost to the Yuan ○ In 1388 there was also a new Ming dynasty in China Proper ○ Ming Dynasty demanded territories that had previously belonged to the Yuan dynasty, but originally belonged to Koryo ○ Choi Yong insisted that Koryo stand their ground, but also invade CHina ■ However, Lee Sunggae insisted on giving in to Ming demand ■ Choi Yong’s demands were followed through ○ 1388 Lee Sunggae went back from the attack on Ming and staged a coup d'etat against Choi Yong and the King and took power ■ 1390 Lee Sunggae group instituted the Rank Land Law ● It reviewed the various pieces of land that the lords or aristocrats that they had been unfairly holding ● It expanded the government's land ownership, but also served to economically cripple Lee Sunggae’s political enemies ○ When Lee Sunggae finally became king in 1392 it marked the start of the Joseon Dynasty Society ○ Aristocracy and local functionaries ■ Became a very closed group ■ Some aristocratic families became tremendously wealthy during the Mongol Domination ■ Younger more countryside based aristocrats turned to Neo Confucianism ○ Commoners and Slaves ○ Human Traffic between Korea and Yuan ■ ● Volume of people travelling back and forth between Yuan and Korea was very high ● Royal members, and their entourages ● Young unmarried virgin women as demanded by the Mongol Yuan dynasty ○ Every so often Mongol riders came to collect the women ○ Every Time this happened government had to implement a nationwide marriage ban ○ This contributed to lowering the average age women were married from late teens to early teens ○ The fate of these women varied ...
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