Organizations & Institutions.pdf - What is an Organization...

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January 18, 2016 What is an Organization? 1. Set of social relationships that are closed or limit the admission of outsiders 2. Has some goal and its members share that goal 3. Members of the organization cooperate in some form to achieve that goal Not all social groupings are organizations Ex: women, men, californians What is an Institution? Set of rules, laws, customs or understandings… a. That shape social interaction in persistent reproducible, patterned ways b. Because departures from the pattern are counteracted by routine and sanction c. Unless something comes along to transfer the institution Examples: marriage sororities & frats, legal contracts, dollar bills (has a certain power that makes economic exchange a lot simpler than it would’ve been) Handshakes Insurance Armies Sexism The weekend (a way of ordering time- days of the week- understandings of what you do and don’t do - defined in relation to work) Attending college Corporations Motels Voting Organizations and Institutions have some overlaps Both Armies Corporations Private orgs- sororities/frat UC Berkeley (going out into labor market & exchange diploma for employment & compensation) Organization Startups (have goals, know who’s in it, but no sense of how to go about doing it, or what to do) Institution Marriage Generally man & woman Physical gestures with meaning (handshakes- could be exclusive form of identifying agreement)
Family Why study the world from the perspective of organizations? All sociology courses touch on orgs in some shape or form Max Weber Formal organizations are governed by bureaucratic authority Bureaucracy is a distinctly modern phenomenon To understand organizations today, we must understand the distinction between modern & traditional societies Work under authority of boss & obey orders not bc the boss will hurt/harm you, or because you have no choice, but because you accept authority of the boss as Legitimate Boss has power over you but it’s the type of authority that is seen as legitimate Formal organizations are characterized by this type of authority relationship Weber says that this is relatively new in western civilizatioN We should understand them because they are relatively new & a feature of modern society Traditional society- highly ordered but in a very different way-- communal institutions (groups that people belong to by right of birth or custom) Why it’s not useful to think of the family as an organization Families are a modern vestige of a traditional communal institution Church, town, guilds, family Modern society- ordered by an associative institution- type of institution that we don’t join by right of birth or custom, but we CHOOSE to join in order to accomplish a particular purpose January 23, 2017 The rational adaptation approach To study organizational behavior, assume that

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