Colquitt2012.pdf - C H A P T E R 16 Organizational Justice...

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C H A P T E R 1 Abstract This chapter frames the development of the justice literature around three literature-level trends: differentiation, cognition, and exogeneity. The differentiation trend has impacted how justice is conceptualized, with additional justice dimensions being further segmented into different sources. The cognition trend has created a rational, calculative theme to the most visible justice theories. The exogeneity trend has resulted in justice occupying the independent variable position in most empirical studies. Taken together, these trends have resulted in a vibrant and active literature. However, I will argue that the next phase of the literature’s evolution will benefit from a relaxation—or even reversal—of these trends. Path-breaking contributions may be more likely to result from the aggregation of justice concepts, a focus on affect, and the identification of predictors of justice. Keywords: Justice, fairness, attitudes, cognition, emotion Organizational Justice Jason A. Colquitt Introduction For some four decades, scholars interested in justice have been examining individuals’ reactions to decisions, procedures, and relevant authorities (for a historical review, see Colquitt, Greenberg, & Zapata-Phelan, 2005). One of the central themes of this research is that individuals do not merely react to events by asking “Was that good?” or “Was that satisfying?” Instead, they also ask “Was that fair?” Hundreds of studies have shown that perceptions of fairness are distinct from feelings of outcome favorability or outcome satisfaction (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001; Skitka, Winquist, & Hutchinson, 2003). Many of those same studies have further shown that fairness perceptions explain unique variance in key attitudes and behaviors, including organizational commitment, trust in management, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior, and task performance (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt et al., 2001). In the early years of the literature, justice scholars focused solely on the fairness of decision outcomes, termed distributive justice . Drawing on earlier work by Homans (1961), Adams (1965) showed that individuals react to outcome allocations by compar- ing their ratio of outcomes to inputs to some rel- evant comparison other. If those ratios match, the individual feels a sense of equity. Although equity is typically viewed as the most appropriate allocation norm in organizations, theorizing suggests that other norms can be viewed as fair in some situations. For example, allocating outcomes according to equality and need norms are perceived to be fair when group harmony or personal welfare are the relevant goals (Deutsch, 1975; Leventhal, 1976). Integrating these perspectives, distributive justice has been de fi ned as the degree to which the appropriate allocation norm is followed in a given decision-making context.
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  • Fall '08
  • Krecz
  • The Land, Greenberg, Distributive justice, Jason A. Colquitt

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