Operation BarbarossaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchOperation BarbarossaPart of the Eastern Frontof World War IIClockwise from top left: German soldiers advance throughNorthern Russia; German flamethrower team in the SovietUnion; Soviet Ilyushin Il-2sflying over German positions nearMoscow; Soviet prisoners of war on the way to German prisoncamps; Soviet soldiers fire artillery at German positions.Date22 June – 5 December 1941(5 months, 1 week and 6 days)LocationCentral, Northeast, and EasternEuropeBelligerentsGermanyRomaniaFinlandItalyHungarySlovakiaCroatiaSoviet UnionCommanders and leaders
Adolf HitlerWalther von BrauchitschFranz HalderFedor von BockGerd von RundstedtWilhelm Ritter von LeebIon AntonescuGustaf MannerheimJoseph StalinGeorgy ZhukovAleksandr VasilyevskiySemyon BudyonnyKliment VoroshilovSemyon TimoshenkoMarkian PopovFyodor KuznetsovDmitry PavlovIvan TyulenevMikhail Kirponos†Units involvedAxis armies[show]Soviet armies[show]StrengthFrontline strength (initial)3.8 million personnel3,350–3,795 tanks3,030–3,072 other AFVs[a]2,770–5,369 aircraft7,200–23,435 artillery Frontline strength (initial)2.6–2.9 million personnel11,000 tanks7,133–9,100 military aircraft14,000,000 reserves (former conscripts who finished their mandatory service)
pieces17,081 mortarsCasualties and lossesTotal military casualties:1,000,000+ Breakdown[show]Total military casualties:4,973,820 Breakdown[show]vteOperation BarbarossavteEastern FrontOperation Barbarossa(German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code namefor the Axisinvasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavsas a slave-labour force for the Axis war effort, and to seize the oil reserves of the Caucasusand the agricultural resources of Soviet territories.In the two years leading up to the invasion, Germany and the Soviet Union signed politicaland economic pactsfor strategic purposes. Nevertheless, the German High Commandbegan planningan invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940 (under the codename Operation Otto), which Adolf Hitlerauthorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers - the largest invasion force in the history of warfare - invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer (1,800 mi) front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, and between 600,000 and 700,000 horses fornon-combat operations. The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographicallyand in the formation of the Allied coalition.
Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important