textilescience1[1]

textilescience1[1] - 4/4/06 Non-woven Fabric o Any textile...

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4/4/06 Non-woven Fabric o Any textile structure produced by bonding, (adhesively or mechanically) staple, or filament fibers, yarns or combinations of these o Methods o Wet process - uses paper making machinery o Dry web process - uses carding or air laying of fibers o Production steps o Fiber preparation o Web formation o Bonding (and curing if needed) o Finishing o Fiber preparation o If staple fiber is used, goes to: Opening Mixing Cleaning (if needed) o Web formation o Parallel-laid (stronger in the lengthwise direction) Formed by laying a number of carded webs in the same direction to obtain the required weight Fabric has properties in the machine direction--lengthwise o Cross-laid - (next best way for properties to be uniform-length=width) Produced by cross-lapping carded webs The angle of the web laying is dependant on the relative speeds of the cross lattices o Random-laid or air laid- (properties to be almost the same in all directions) Depositing fibers on the surface of the condenser then to a screen Isotropic properties (same in all directions) o Bonding of non-woven fabrics o Chemically- (adhesive)— dry out and change texture and hand Spun bonded Produced by bonding filaments together after extrusion in an integrated process Variables included polymer type, fiber denier. Crimp level. X-sectional shape, fiber orientation, web geometry, type of bonding, bond frequency and post bond treatment Made directly from polymers such as polyester, nylon, polypropylene, or polyethylene Polymer is fed into an extruder and converted to a liquid (melt) and extruded through a spinnerets and laid on a moving conveyer belt to form a web
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Cool the web, fibers will seal together Pattern of the fabric depends on: o Rotation of spinnerets o Jet of air to tangle filaments o Speed of conveyer belt Fibers bond through heat or chemical after treatment Examples of spun bonded fabrics o Reemay - made of polyester o Cerex -made of nylon Both used for: interlining, coating substrates, battery separators. Composites, quilting cover, filtration o Tyvar- made of polypropylene Used for primary backing of tufted carpets upholstery Tremendous strength Does not rot Dimensionally stable o Tyvek - made of polyethylene Used as: High grade paper, maps, tags, labels. wall coverings, packaging, book covering, house covering Thermoplastic or powder Uses a % of thermoplastic fibers blended with the body fiber of a fabric Melt the thermoplastic fibers by heat or pressure Molten fiber binds the other fibers together Thermosplastic powder could also be used instead of the fibers Solution bonded Spray latex on the web (acrylic resins) Cure (bake) If calendaring is not used a lofty fabric is formed Solution bonded fabric properties depend on: o Web speed o Web formation o Spray gun pressure o Concentration of latex Saturation bonding o Results in higher degree of bonding
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course SOHE 251 taught by Professor Sarmandi during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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textilescience1[1] - 4/4/06 Non-woven Fabric o Any textile...

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