PSYCH outline

PSYCH outline - PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 2 I. Learning -...

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PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 2 I. Learning - a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of experience A. Classical Conditioning -- a form of learning where a neutral Stimulus (CS) comes to elicit a Response (CR) after being paired with a Stimulus (UCS) that already elicits that Response (UCR) 1. Start with UCS -> UCR, then pair the CS with UCS. 2. Processes in CC: a. stimulus generalization -- tendency to show conditioned response when exposed to a stimulus that is s imilar to the conditioned stimulus b. extinction - the weakening/death of a conditioned response (usually occurs when UCS is no longer paired with CS) c. spontaneous recovery - reappearance of conditioned response after extinction 3. Application of CC - bedwetting B. Operant Conditioning -- a form of learning where responses come to be controlled by their consequences 1. reinforcement and punishment a. reinforcement - anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior happening again b. punishment -- anything that decreases the likelihood of a behavior happening again c. Types of reinforcers/punishers (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment) d. choosing a reinforcer -- salient to person e. effective punishment -- (consistent; immediate, first time; strong enough to be aversive) 2. Schedules of reinforcement a. fixed-ratio -- reinforce after a set number of responses b. variable-ratio -- reinforce after an average number of responses c. fixed-interval -- reinforce the first response after a set amount of time d. variable-interval -- reinforce the first response after an average amount of time 3. Shaping -- to reinforce successive approximations of an improbable behavior until you get that behavior 4. Learned helplessness -- when there is no escape from something aversive, less likely to try and change situation over time
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C. Observational Learning -- learn by watching others (models) who are rewarded or punished ex) Bandura’s research on aggression - Bobo Doll studies II. Memory A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory 1. sensory memory - exact replica of a sensation; short-term memory - working memory
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PSYCH outline - PSYC 1001 OUTLINE FOR TEST 2 I. Learning -...

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