BIO FINAL - BIO FINAL Eukaryotic cell in plants and animals...

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BIO FINAL Eukaryotic cell – in plants and animals, subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles, including chloroplasts. The largest organelle is the nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA. Prokaryotic cell – much simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bound nucleus. Prokaryotic cells also lack other kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles. Emergent properties – due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study Negative feedback – the most common form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process shows that progress Positive feedback – a biological process in which an end process speeds up its production Element – substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions - 92 elements in nature (ex: gold, copper, carbon, oxygen) Compound – substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio (ex: NaCl is sodium and chlorine) Trace elements – those required by an organism in only minute qualities (such as iron) Neutrons and protons – subatomic particle packed together tightly to form adense core, or atomic nucleus Atomic nucleus – dense core made of protons and neutrons Electrons and protons – electrically charged, electrons have positive charge, protons have negative charge, neutrons are neutral Dalton – measurement for atoms and subatomic particles - same as atomic mass unit, or amu) Atomic number – number of protons which is unique to an element 2He means that the atom has 2 protons in its nucleus Mass number – the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom – mass number is written as a superscript to the left of an elements symbol. Atomic mass – the total mass of an atom Isotopes – different atomic forms of an element – in nature an element occurs as a mixture of its isotopes Radioactive isotope – one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy. When the decay leads to a change in the number of protons, it transforms the atom to an atom of a different element. Ex: radioactive carbon decays to form nitrogen Energy – the capacity to cause change i.e. by doing work Potential energy – the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure Energy levels – different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
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Electron shells – the average distances from the nucleus that represent the electrons energy levels Valence electrons – outer electrons – the outermost electron shell being the valence shell Orbital – the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time Chemical bonds - attractions holding together the atoms
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