Lecture slides I (F18).pdf - Welcome to Introduction to Biochemistry BIOC*2580 Fall 2018 Molecules we study in biochemistry small molecules sugars amino

Lecture slides I (F18).pdf - Welcome to Introduction to...

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Fall 2018 Welcome to Introduction to Biochemistry BIOC*2580
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__________________ sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, carboxylic acid derivatives act as building blocks for macromolecules __________________ Proteins chains of amino acids Polysaccharides chains of simple sugars Nucleic acids chains of nucleotides Molecules we study in biochemistry
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A macromolecule myoglobin is a protein that stores O 2 in muscle tissue C N S O
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How large is a protein molecule? Most proteins: 10,000 to 100,000 g mol-1Protein size is expressed in _______________ 1 Dalton (Da) = 1 g mol-1(mass of H atom) 1 kDa = 1000 gmol-1 Myoglobin is 16.5 kDa small protein P-glycoprotein is 170 kDa large protein
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The building block principle of macromolecular structure Understand the building blocks Understand the macromolecules repeated simple bonds building blocks
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Proteins are made of amino acids Understand amino acids Understand proteins amide bonds amino acids
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Proteins are made of amino acids linear chains of amino acidslinked by peptide bonds (type of amide bond) Each protein has: unique sequence of different amino acids a well definedsize and structure Proteins have diverse functions including: catalyzing reactions (enzymes) forming complex subcellular structures
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Basic amino acid structure Each amino acid has an _________ group and a ____________ group Each amino acid has a different ____________ 20 different amino acids are found in proteins (see Lehninger p79 (75))
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Peptide bonds ____________involves removal ofH2O from the units being linked _________ The C=O group of the amide is thepoint of weakness allowing H2O attack
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Large numbers of amino acids can be linked together to form a peptide chain The combination of different side chains R1, R2, R3, etc gives each protein its unique properties there are 153 amino acids in myoglobin (16.5 kDa) ______________ a chain with many amino acids, usually a complete protein Greek poly = many ______________ a chain with a few amino acids, usually a fragment Greek oligo = a few
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The____________is the central backbone atom The___________is the first atom of the side chain, the g-carbonis the second, etc Functional groups may be linked to different core atoms:
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The 20 natural amino acids Amino acids share a common backbone, but differ in the side chain You need to be able to reproduce the structures of the amino acids and know their 1- and 3-letter codes You need to be able to associate particular properties with each amino acid ______________ ______________ _________________________ Amino acids can be grouped according to structures or by similar properties
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“inverted pyramid” 6 5 4 3 2 6 with very non- polar side chains 5 with moderately non-polar side chains 4 with polar but uncharged side chains 3 with positively charged side chains (very polar) 2 with negatively charged side chains (very polar)
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6 with very non-polar side chains 5 with moderately non-polar side chains
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4 with polar but uncharged side chains 3 with positively charged side chains (very polar)
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4 nucleotides in DNA (second half of the course) 2 with negatively charged side chains (very polar) Do not need to memorize the structures of the nucleotide bases for the midterm. They will be tested in the final exam.
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