MODULE 1 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION‘Internet of Things” (IOT) to conceptualize how devices connect together Computer terminal: interface where the mind & body can connect with the universe and move bits1.1 HARDWARE COMPONENTSHardware: physical equipment and devices to a computerSoftware: programs that run on the hardwareThe Central Processing Unit (CPU)The “brain” or processor and it performs most of the “computing”Perform basic operations: Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)Comparisons (equal, greater than, less than)Logic (and, or, not)Data movement (move data from one location to another)Control flow (how the CPU decides what to do next)A lot can be accomplished with those basic operations and CPUs are very fastEach has its own machine language to give instructions. Instructions designed for one CPU will not work on another, but manufacturers choose to make their machine languages compatible (ex Intel).Similar to the engine of a car. One of the most significant costs of a computer, price is a reflection of quality of the CPUKey Characteristics:Make & Model- varying manufacturers with different CPU models with characteristicsSpeed- measured in GHz (Gigahertz) A 3 GHZ processor can perform 3 billion operations per second (Giga= billion, hertz= per second)Number of Cores- most CPUs are a combination of several processors or core. A quad core has 4 independent processors built into a single chip and can do 4 times as much computationas a single corePower Consumption- Affected by speed and number of cores. Some can slow speed to switch to a “low power mode” to save battery lifeCache- the larger the betterMost popular CPUs for desktops PCs and Macs are Intel and AMDFor mobile devices, ARM based are popular for their power consumption (Snapdragon & Apples A9)Primary Memory and Secondary StorageSecondary StorageLong term (permanent) storage of a computer ex hard drives, flash drives, CDs and DVDs, magnetic tapes and floppy disksInside hard drives there are several magnetic disks (platters) that store large amount of informationCapacities are measured in terabytes (TB) / trillions of bytes. Called “drives” because of physical motor that spins the magnetic disks
Flash drives core technology is more static electricity than magnetism used by hard drives. Include USB sticks and SD cards and Solid State Drives (SSDs). No moving parts so they require less power than HDs
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