BiologyNotes2 - Biology Notes Exam 2 Global Warming Causes?...

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Biology Notes Exam 2 Global Warming Causes? Cell Respiration puts more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (comes from photosynthesis with the production of glucose which gets respired and the carbon gets oxidized again) Amount of carbon dioxide- fuel emissions from organics (long dead organic material; oxidizing a great long back log of organic material); decreasing photosynthesis opportunities by destroying plants Both plants and animals respire by breaking down glucose Why do cells break down glucose? To get energy What is the point of glycolysis? To release some of the energy in glucose Nearly all metabolic reactions run on energy released from glucose and other organic compounds. The main energy-releasing pathways start in the cytoplasm with glycolysis, a stage of reactions that break down glucose to pyruvate. Anaerobic pathways have a small net energy yield, typically two ATP per glucose. Aerobic respiration, an oxygen-dependent pathway, runs to completion in mitochondria. From start (glycolysis) to finish, it typically has a net energy yield of thirty-six ATP. Energy from Glucose to ATP: Cell Respiration (happens in the mitochondria, point is to make ATP) 1. Oxygen Independent (what happens that does not require oxygen) a. Glycolysis b. Pyruvic acid anaerobic pathway (only happens in the absence of oxygen) 2. Oxygen Dependent (requires oxygen) a. Electron Transport (Cytochrome) system b. Pyruvic acid aerobic pathway i. Make ready step ii. Krebs citric Acid Cycle I. Oxygen Independent in Cytoplasm II. Oxygen dependent in mitochondria Glycolysis (breaking down glucose) 6-C molecule glucose C6H12O6 (what happens to 6 carbons is what matters) C-C-C-C-C-C (there are other things bonded to carbons like hydrogens) Has to be an input of energy for things to start happening 1. C-C-C-C-C-C 2. P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P (Take energy in the form of ATP to add phosphate; 2 ATPs 2 ADPs; a phosphate gets added to each end; so far minus 2 ATPs; phosphates brought energy to the molecules) 3. An enzyme is involved that breaks them apart P-C-C-C C-C-C-P (breaks apart
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because the negative charges of phosphates don’t want to be near each other; 2 NAD molecules come in and want to bond to hydrogen, take hydrogens and become two NADH molecules) 4. Another phosphate group shows up on the other end of the molecules; do not come from ATP (don’t bring energy with them); from phosphorus raw materials in the cell (inorganic phosphate) P-C-C-C-P P-C-C-C-P Each phosphate added to one C-C-C replaces hydrogens; those hydrogens have with them some high energy electrons; will be taken away by a carrier molecule called NAD; becomes reduced to NADH These H (and much energy) are picked up by the carrier molecule NAD and reducing it to form NADH (x2) Most amount of energy is lost when the hydrogens are lost (NADH has enough energy to make up to 3 ATPs) 5. P~C-C-C~P P~C-C-C~P The bonds at the end become high energy bonds because they really want to break; we have phosphorylated a substrate (added phosphates
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BiologyNotes2 - Biology Notes Exam 2 Global Warming Causes?...

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