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Biol 101 31 January 2008

Biol 101 31 January 2008 - lactic acid Creating an oxygen...

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Biol 101 31 January 2008 Energy from glucose to ATP Oxygen independent (cytoplasm) o Glycolysis: for releasing energy in glucose -2 ATPs: C-C-C-C-C-C +4 ATPs: P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 ATPs 2 ADPs +6 ATPs: P-C-C-C C-C-C-P P-C-C-C- P P P P -C-C-C-P (from inorganic phosphorus) Each phosphate added to one 3-C replaces hydrogens o These H (and much energy) are picked up by the carrier molecule NAD reducing it to form NADH (x2) P~C-C-C~P P~C-C-C~P 4 ADPs 4 ATPs C-C-C C-C-C <-- pyruvic acid, pyruvic acid 4 ADPs 4 ATPs Making ATP by substrate phosphorylation At the end of glycolysis 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 2 moleucles of NADH 4 molecules of ATP (a net gain of 2 ATPs) (by substrate phosphorylation) o Pyruvic acid anaerobic pathway Occurs only in absence of oxygen Allows glycolysis to take place again by freeing up NAD (NADH NAD) to accept more H from glycolysis
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To do this, NADH gives up its H to pyruvic acid, converting H (?) to
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Unformatted text preview: lactic acid Creating an oxygen debt – process will wave to reverse when there’s oxygen available • Oxygen dependent (mitochondria) – aerobic pathway o Electron transport (cytochrome) system Gradient energy release system to transfer energy from NADH to ATPs Each NADH has energy to yield 3 ATPs So, ATPs now 8 (2 substrate phosphoryanon and 6 from 2 NADHs in glycolysis) Oxygen is final acceptor of electrons Electron transport • Energy or NADH e- is used to transport proteins (H+) into mitochondrial compartment • Separation of charges = potential energy o Pyruvic acid aerobic pathway Make ready step • C-C-C (NADH) C-C + CO2 (up) : remember there are 2 of these molecules • NADH E-T system 3 ATPs (happens twice = 6 ATPs, net gain of ATP is now 12) Kreb’s citric acid cycle • Global warming: causes...
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