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Biol 101 Ch7 - Biol 101 Ch 7 Review 7.1 All organisms can...

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Biol 101 Ch. 7 Review 7.1 All organisms can make ATP by breaking down carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Anaerobic: does not use free O2 in reactions o Many prokaryotes and protists live in absence of oxygen (make ATP by fermentation of another anaerobic pathway_ o Many eukaryotic cells still use fermentation (e.g., skeletal muscle cells) Cells of nearly all species extract energy efficiently from glucose by way of aerobic respiration: O2-dependent pathway In all cells, all of main energy-releasing pathways start with same reaction in cytoplasm Glycolysis: initial reaction during which enzymes leave and rearrange a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvate, an organic compound with 3-C backbone o After glycolysis energy-releasing pathways differ o Aerobic continues and ends in mitochondria (anaerobic – cytoplasm) where O2 accepts/removes e- that drove react ion o Enzymes catalyze each step o Intermediates formed in one step serve as substrates o Aerobic respiration gets most ATP for each glucose molecule Anaerobic has net yield of 2 ATP Aerobic has net yield of >/= 36 ATP Kreb’s Cycle: cyclic pathway where enzymes break down pyruvate to CO2 and H2O,
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