Chapter 07: Pediatric PharmacologyPHARMACOLOGY – STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 1MULTIPLE CHOICE1.The nurse is preparing to administer a medication to a 6-month-old infant. The nurse will monitor closely for signs of drug toxicity based on the knowledge that, compared to adults, infants havea.an increased percentage of total body fat.b.immature hepatic and renal function.c.more protein receptor sites.d.more rapid gastrointestinal transit time.ANS: BRational: The liver and kidneys are the primary organs for metabolism and excretion and are immature in infants. This allows drugs to accumulate and increases the risk for drug toxicity. Infants have a lower proportion of body fat than adults and fewer protein receptors. They do have more rapid gastrointestinal transit time, but this decreases the amount of drug absorbed.Pages 81-822.The nurse reviews information about a drug and learns that it is best absorbed in an acidic environment. When giving this drug to a 1-year-old patient, the nurse will expect to administer a dose that will beRational Because the child’s gastric pH is more alkaline than the adult’s, less drug will be absorbed. Therefore, the dose should be increased. Page 803.The nurse assumes care for an infant who is showing signs of drug toxicity to a drug given several hours prior. The nurse checks the dose and confirms that the dose is consistent with standard dosing guidelines. Which characteristic of the drug will likely explain this response in this patient?
Rational: With fewer protein-binding sites, there is more active drug available. This requires a reduction in the dose for infants. Drugs that are acidic are not as readily absorbed in infants, since their gastric pH tends to be more alkaline. Infants have a lower proportion of body fat; fat-soluble drugs would need to be decreased to prevent toxicity. Until about age 2 years of age, pediatric patients require larger than usual doses of water-soluble drugs to achieve therapeutic effects. Page 814.The parent is concerned about giving a child medication because of the lack of knowledge about the effects of drugs on children. The nurse discusses legislation passed in 2002 and 2003 about pediatric pharmacology. Which is true about these laws?Rational: In 2003, a law known as the Pediatric Research Equity Act joined the Best Pharmaceuticals Act of 2002 to require drug manufacturers to study pediatric medication use
- Spring '19
- Pharmacology, Lidocaine, Drug toxicity