Copy of 05.02_Bonding Worksheet.docx - 05.02 Ionic\/Covalent Bond Worksheet WORKSHEET ON CHEMICAL BONDING Valence electrons When an atom undergoes a

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WORKSHEET ON CHEMICAL BONDING Valence electrons : When an atom undergoes a chemical reaction, only the outermost electrons are involved. These electrons are of the highest energy and are furthest away from the nucleus. These are the valence electrons . For the main group elements, the valence electrons are in the orbitals s (this orbital holds up to 2 electrons) and p (this orbital holds up to 8 electrons). IONIC BONDING Ions are formed where electrons are transferred from the valence shell of one atom (usually a metal) to the valence shell of another atom (non-metal) so that both end up with Noble Gas configurations. Assume, in the first instance, that compounds between reactive metals and reactive non-metals will be ionic. COVALENT BONDING Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. This is most often between non-metal atoms (but there are a number of compounds between metals and non-metals that are covalent). A single covalent bond involves one shared pair of electrons. In many compounds, atoms will share electrons to enable their valence shell to become like the nearest Noble
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