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Unformatted text preview: RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL Template A. Research Proposal Student Name: Student ID: Provisional Topic Title: “Importance of Project Management in Organizations” Proposal structurally approved by workshop tutor: Yes/No 1 2 1. Executive Summary: The proposal is carried out to examine the importance of project management in the organizations for which the researcher will identify the tools and techniques used in the project management. It is also important to analyse the contribution and importance of the project management to the overall performance of an organization. The researcher analysed the literature review related to the research topic and presented in the study. The researcher proposed quantitative research methods for collecting data for the research as it generates more accurate and quantifiable results for the study. The data collected through the quantitative research will be analysed through quantitative analysis tools such as the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The researcher also presented the approximate time schedule for the study in the form of Gantt chart. 3 1. Aims/objectives/Research Questions: Background and Introduction: The project management process has been considered as a complex process and each phase of the project management process has its own tasks and activities. The first and the foremost phase is the initiation phase in which the project manager examines the future benefits of the project for the organization. The second phase is the planning stage which is considered to be very critical and important for the successful completion of the project. The third phase is the execution stage in which the project manager distributes the tasks of the project among the team members. The fourth phase is the control stage in which the project manager controls the progress or schedule of the project and adjusts them accordingly. The fifth phase is the closing phase in which the project manager presents the complete project to the client and close it if the final output of the project is approved by the client. Every organisation has a project to implement and for that it is necessary that planning and design stages of the project are carried out in an effective manner as they are crucial to the success of a project. Project management approaches assists in the planning and design stages of the project so that desired results in specified costs and specified time can be achieved. Not using such techniques can result in huge losses in organisational profits, bad reputation in the community and the delivery of new products to market can be delayed. In light of all the above mentioned facts, the aim of this study is to quantitatively investigate the importance and role of project management approaches in organizational success. Aim of the study The primary aim of the research will be to quantitatively investigate the importance and role of project management approaches in organizational success. Research Questions 4 The study will have following research questions: 1. What are the critical factors that are responsible for organisational success and the extent to which project management is involved in such factors? 2. What are the tools used by organisations for project management and what tools are the most effective in organisational context? 3. Do the project management approaches needs to be effective if they have to contribute towards organisational success, if yes, how? Objectives To answer the research questions and ultimately to achieve the aim, the researcher will use the following objectives: 1. To evaluate such factors which have contributed towards different organisations success in the past five years and then analysing the importance company gives to the inclusion of project management. 2. To examine the tools (through questionnaire) used by different organisations project managers in large projects. 3. To statistically present that effectiveness of project management contributes towards the organisational success and to present those factors which must be included. Research rationale Scope of the study The scope of the research is limited to the project management field only and the researcher will gather data from only those project managers which are working in different organizations of UAE. Nature of the study The nature of the research is descriptive as well as interpretive in nature because it deals with the quantitative research approaches and the researcher will interpret the data collected 5 through the survey questionnaires and generate results. 2. Methodology: As the study is based on collecting data through survey questionnaires (closed ended questions) will be used, they need to be evaluated precisely so that accurate findings can be achieved. For that, it is decided that only quantitative techniques of data collection and data analysis will be applied, also involving the use of statistical software. Justification for Research Design The research design chosen for the current research is the quantitative research in which the researcher will utilise the survey questionnaire for collecting data from the research participants. The reason for choosing quantitative research method for the current study is that it restructures and reduces the research problem by the use of statistics. The quantitative research allows the researcher to collect more accurate and relevant questions for the study as it utilises survey questionnaires for the data collection. Moreover, by using the quantitative research, the researcher has the opportunity to include as much project managers from different organizations as he can because the researcher have the possibility to send survey questionnaires to a large number of organization through e-mail. Data Collection Methods The data collection methods used for the current study will be quantitative in which both secondary as well primary approaches will be utilised. The secondary and primary data will be collected through the sources which are further explained in the study. The researcher will use survey questionnaire as a research instrument for collecting data for the study. Sampling Method The researcher will use the purposive sampling method for conducting research for the study. The purposive sampling will allow the researcher to select project managers working in different companies for gathering data for the research. The sample size selected for conducting research will be 50. The researcher will connect 50 project managers working in different organisations and distribute survey questionnaire among them for conducting research related to the importance of project management in organizations. 6 Data Analysis Technique As the study will utilise the quantitative research methods for data collection; therefore, the data analysis technique will be also based on the quantitative data analysis tool such as the SPSS. The data collected through survey questionnaires will be analysed through the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) in which regression analysis will be used. Through regression analysis, the researcher will find out the impact of the project management on organizational success then interpret these results accordingly. 3. Brief Literature Review: Project Management Project Management involves different processes such as the planning, scheduling, controlling, monitoring and closing to achieve desired objectives of the research. Project management can be defined as a process that involves the application of the techniques, tools, skills and knowledge to the activities of a project in order to meet the project requirements (PMI, 2013). The definition of the project management given by PMI (Project Management Institute) clearly explains that the project management is related to the management of the allocated resources of the project efficiently and effectively in order to complete the project successfully. The Project Management Institute identified that the project life cycle of a project consists of five different stages which are listed as follows: Initiation Process Planning Process Execution Process Monitoring & Close Process Closing Process Ika et al., (2011) communicated that there are some best practices which are essential for the successful project management which includes project mission, top management support, 7 project schedule, client consultation, personnel management, Client Acceptance, Technical tasks, Monitoring & Feedback, Communication and Trouble shooting. Monitoring and control, both are complex phases of the project management; however proper development and effective utilization of project management tools can reduce these complexities. Importance of project management to organizations Project management plays an important role in the better performance and the overall success of an organization. The effective project management allows the organizations to schedule and complete their organizational tasks on time and bring efficiency in their operations. Besides that, the tools and techniques used in the project management help the project managers to examine each and every component of the project and find the impact of the project’s elements on the organizational performance. Project management techniques The project management tools and technologies such as Gantt chart, Critical path methods, PERT analysis and some other computer based technologies also improve the project performance. The project managers should not rely only on the project management tools and techniques and need to identify critical success factors of a project at each phase of the project life cycle (Alias et al., 2014). It is also essential for the successful execution of the project to meet the client’s needs, provide proper training to the project team, develop skills and abilities for the project and to identify key areas which are crucial for the project performance. Critical success factors for the project management Critical Success factors are defined as those variables or characteristics which can significantly impact the success of a project. Researchers identified different critical success factors from time to time and they also studied the impact of these critical success factors on the success of the project. Turner & Muller (2005) found that it is important to identify the critical success factors for a successful project rather than just focusing on the traditional methods of project management. From the last 20 years, project managers are giving high importance to the critical success factors of the project and keeps on changing their approach towards project management from time to time. Recent studies (Ika et al, 2011; Gido & Clements, 2014) considered project attributes as critical for the success and they also reported that the quality, time and cost of the project can also improve the project performance. 8 The success of a project directly depends on the unfavorable and favorable involvement of the critical success factors in a project. According to Ofori (2013), project managers can ensure success of the project and gain competitive advantage for the organization by careful examination of the critical success factors. Critical Success factors are essential for key areas of the business in order to achieve desired organizational goals. The key areas of a project are identified by Fortune & White (2006), which include Project leadership, communication between project leader and project team, accountability, responsibility, schedule control, proper planning and risk management. It shows that a proper project plan, backup plan for risk management, stakeholder’s support and the commitment of the project leader to the project can be defined as critical success factors for the project. Khang and Moe (2008) recommended that there are set of different critical factors which are responsible for the project success or failure at different phases of project life cycle. The set of different success factors at different phases of the project life cycle are explained in the table below: The project success and failure depends on various factors and it is crucial to define specific factors behind the success and failure of the project which is also based on the project nature. Determining critical success factors for a project is a complex process which needs complete supervision and proper planning in order to achieve the project goals. It is also argued by Fortune and White (2006) that critical success factors cannot be defined as a benchmark for measuring failure or success of the project as the project resources itself can influence the project life cycle. Many authors have reviewed different studies on the critical success factors of the project and identified different factors on the basis of their complexity and importance to the project. After reviewing 63 publications on the critical success factors, Fortune and White 9 (2006) derived a list of some factors that are most important to the project success and are called as critical success factors (Fortune & White, 2006). The most cited and widely used success factors include support from the senior management, realistic and clear objectives for the project and an effective plan for the project. Besides that, Steinfort & Walker (2007), also pointed out different success factors from the past literature and communicated that the selection of critical success factors for a project depends on the project needs and the project managers keep on examining the impact of critical factors on the project during the project life cycle. 4. Resources you need/Access to primary and secondary data: The study will make use of primary and secondary data so that best results can be achieved. Researcher will use different sources of secondary and primary data for collecting data for the current research which are listed as follows: Secondary Data Secondary sources can be defined as data which is already published and which has been used by various researchers in the past for conducting their research. In the secondary resources, previous studies on similar topics is the most important part as it will reveal important findings in the research area. Apart of that, other journals and PmBoK guidelines will also be used. Primary Data Primary sources of data can be defined as an information that is gathered by the researcher himself for particular purpose of the study. In the primary resources, this study is only focusing on closed ended questions through survey questionnaires with managers of different companies in the UAE that handles majority of the projects. 10 5. Project Schedule: The successful completion of the projects requires an effective time framework and work schedule for the project. The completion of the underlying research project will be based on the below schedule: Steps 1 Description Due date Preparation Stage 15 Feb 2016 Week -1-2: Area of interest identified 20 Feb Weeks 3-4: Topic selected/form submitted 20 Feb Weeks 4-5: Topic refined to develop dissertation proposal 25 Feb Weeks 5-8: Proposal written and submitted 2 3 Chapters 1-3 completed 5 March 10 March 2016 Chapter 1 Draft Introduction completed 25 March Chapter 2 Draft Literature Review completed 30 April Chapter 3 Draft Research Methodology completed 20 May Collection of data and information 25 May 2016 Data analysis and Interpretation of data 15 June Chap 4 Draft Results, Analysis and Discussion completed 30 June Chapter 5 Draft Conclusions, Implications & 15 July recommendations 4 Final Writing up 20 July 2016 Structure, presentation and proof reading 5 Final Stage 25 July 5 August 2016 Final proof reading, printing and binding 6 Submission of Project (WOLF and hard copy submission) 11 10 August 15 August 2016 RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL EVALUATION GRID/FEEDBACK SHEET Student to fill in personal details below and having read the ethical guidelines, confirm project is category A (below) and upload along with the proposal form . Student last name: Student first name(s): Student no: Supervisor: First submission Resubmission Evaluation Summary Feedback (As per ticked Box) (Check overleaf for possible further comment) 12 Excellent: Approved to proceed Compelling proposal, persuasively outlining a well thought through, and feasible and relevant research study. Very Good: Approved to proceed Clear and specific about research question, project design and research methods. These three elements are shown to be well co-ordinated. Good: Approved to proceed Well-defined research question. Sensible project design and clear plans for conducting the research. Competent: Approved to proceed Clear research question. Explicit ideas on design and methods but there are some issues about the fit between question, design and methods. Borderline: Improvement required; resubmit to supervisor; Identifies an interesting topic, but the research question is very broad and the details of the project are hazy. not yet approved. Arrange meeting with Supervisor a.s.a.p. Unsatisfactory: Major improvement required; resubmit to supervisor; not yet approved to proceed. The focus, purpose and method of the project are not made clear to the reader. Arrange meeting with Supervisor a.s.a.p. Application for Ethical Approval: Is this a proposal for Category A or Category B project? (to completed by student) 13 If it is Category A, do you recommend that approval is given? (to be completed by the supervisor) Supervisor Feedback In addition to the standardised feedback given on page one, and to comment and advice that will be given in supervision meetings, Supervisors may choose to use the space below to offer more detailed comments on the overall proposal and/or to suggest specific ways in which the proposal should/could be improved to strengthen the foundations for the intended study. 14 15 Supervisor Signature: ___________________________________ Name (Please print) ___________________________________ Date: ______________________ 16 Task B: Personal Development Action Plan 17 B. Action Plan SKILLS REQUIRED Academic writing and literature reviews: Critical thinking and writing: MY CURRENT SKILLS I believe that I am a good writer academically. The reason I have confidence on my ability is be a good academic writer is because I am aware of the dos and don’ts of writing. Critical thinking is that part of a research which is difficult to attain for even the expert writers sometimes. My critical thinking skills are not that polished and I plan to perform my best while attempting the critical thinking HOW WILL I DATE OF ACHIEVE THIS COMPLETION In order to This aim will be 1st June 2016 show excellent achieved when academic I research writing skills, I several plan to conduct academic an extensive journals online research for and then shortthe literature list them to review part. I include only the plan to include relevant ones in only authentic the study. I will academic be highlighting resources. I all the plan to focus important on my writing points in the skills so that I selected make few journals and grammatical then I will errors. discuss them in the literature of this study. My aim for the I plan to 20th June 2016 critical thinking highlight the part is to important analyse the points in the studies which I journal article will be which are including worth thoroughly attempting a before I discuss critical thinking them in my session. I will research analyse every project. highlighted point individually so that all points are properly MY AIM part. Data Collection Methods: Data analysis Methods: I have been taught about the theories which should be used in the primary and secondary data collection method. Since this study consists of both, I have to be careful to mingle the results of both into one conclusion. I have been taught about the methods which can be used for data analysis. However, I have never ...
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