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Chapter 1 (8/31/18) Orientalism before Asian America Appearance of discrete Asian populations: ●1) Filipino sailors aboard Spanish galleons●2) California gold rush 1840s+1850s●3)1960’s identification of Asian American identity by activists Asian American experience did not enter as a blank state ●Entered into a society Americans had a different relationship to Asia than Europe did ●From mysterious ancient knowledge to barbaric place to be civilized European Orientalism ●The authority of dominant Europeans was bolstered by one-sided production and unidirectional flow of knowledge ●Asia has been imagined as romantic, exotic, terrifying but always otherworldly ●Savagery and civilization solidified East West divide ●Oriental countries were Europeans great and richest country Greek plays ●Asia’s lush environment produced monotony, Europe less naturally abundant so more courageous people ●Alexander the Great exoticized Asian culture After Greeks: Medieval writings -East still fantastical imaginings -Barbaric but good at military -Religion7th-15th-Christians vs nonchristians (muslims) created this divide between the two -Gender:-Asians were wild and untamed -Eventually were recognized as tamed (this was used to rationalize colonization from 1500s)19th century:-Orient represented backwardness, irrationality, sensuality and stagnation -Orients never had a voice so Westerners have been able to draw from Orientalist experiences-Orientalists claimed to know and were given authority Ideology and Power -Orientalism began with Portugal’s penetration of India, Southeast Asia and macao in 15-1700s. -European imperialism lead to Western discoveries of Eastern●Knowledge●Tetxs●Formation of societies●Rise of new Orientalist authorties ○Learning these differences only made them more confident
-Europe more fascinated by past than modern day Asia -Europe had militarism and knowledge -Europeans tried to stir inert people from alienation to greatness -As long as the intention was to dominate the orient, then Europeans would forever try to find differences and betters -Because Asia has been constructed under European framework, Orientalism is just a way to affirm European identity. -A lot of Europeans only exposed to pictures and texts and relied on that to judge the Orietn Themes:•No direct contact (ideologies formed off of texts of Asians)•Slight contact (started trading with Asians)•More contact through trade (developed more Orientalist sentiment, wanted missionaries) •Asian immigration (even more-manifest destiny) Orientalism in America-European conquest was bound up in Orientalist projections: CC travel to India then found NA-CC persisted to call them Indians ●PrerevolutionaryBritish North America, England was the “other” not “Orient” ○By 18th century, became “Anglo-American identity” ●Difference between European and American (Vijay Prashad) ○Europeans: East and West would never meet (Twain)○