Essentials of Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age, 2nd Edition.pdf - THE HOBO-DYER MAP Can a map challenge your assumptions about the world

Essentials of Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age, 2nd Edition.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: THE HOBO-DYER MAP Can a map challenge your assumptions about the world? The Hobo–Dyer map reorients the world, placing south at the top and, like the Peters map that follows, uses an equal-area presentation, presenting accurate proportions of countries, continents, and oceans in relation to one another, rather than emphasizing shape or compass bearings. What do you see differently from this new perspective? Falkland Arge Uruguay Chile ntin a Islands (U.K.) S O U TH PA C IF IC O C EA N uay rag Pa Bo ru St. Vincent and the Grenadines E Vanuatu Samoa Solomon Islands W N Equator Kiribati Colombia Panama Costa Rica Nicaragua El Salvador Honduras Caribbean Guatemala Sea Venezuela Barbados St. Lucia (Fr.) Martinique Dominica Gulf of Mexico NO R T H AT L A N T IC OCEAN Labrador Sea Hawaii (U.S.) ico Dom. (U.S.) Puerto Rico Rep. Cu ba as am Ba h ex Antigua and Barbuda St. Kitts & Nevis M Jamaica Belize Haiti (Fr.) Guadeloupe Greenland Fiji Pe Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Grenada (Fr.) S Ecuador French Guiana Suriname New Caledonia livia Brazil New Zealand NO RTH PA C IF IC O C EA N United States Hudson Bay Canada Alaska (U.S.) Beaufort Sea Bering Sea A RCTI C OCEA N A n t a r c t i c a Lesotho Saudi Arabia Kuwait Jordan Iraq Syria Cong o Egypt ce Ukraine Fin la Kara Sea Barents Sea Ghana Mali Sw e Côte d'Ivoire Liberia Sierra Leone Guineain ea Bissau Gambia Senegal Mauritania Cape Verde Western Sahara Morocco Spain . Italy Cro Slo. France Hun.. Aust. Switz. Lux. SvkCz. Rep. Belarus Poland Lith. Latvia Estonia nd Sea Kos. Mont. B.H. Portugal Belgium Ireland Neth. U.K. Den. North Sea Iceland Ger. n Russia Moldova rb. Se Lake Baikal K az akhstan Burkina Faso Algeria Israel LebanonM Cyprus e d i t e r r aTunisia Gr Mac. nea ee Alb. n Azerbaijan Tajikistan Turkm Turkey e n is t a n Uz Armenia b e Kyrgyzstan kis Caspian tan Black Sea Bulg. Sea Georgia Aral Sea Rom. Mongolia Benin Togo Libya y Iran Niger wa Om a U.A.E. Qatar Bahrain Persian Gulf an st Af Paki sta gh an n i pa l Ye Equatorial Guinea Nigeria Chad Sudan Sea China Bhutan n r it r e a me Sao Tome and Principe Red Bangladesh South Korea Sea of North Japan Korea Laptev Sea n India Ne East China Sea Sea of Okhotsk Arabian Sea E Japan tnam Vie Taiwan Central Djibouti Bay of Bengal Thailand Laos Myanmar Democratic Republic of the Gabon Congo South African Ethiopia Sudan Republic Cambodia South China Sea Somalia Kenya Uganda Angola Gu Philippines Maldives Sri Lanka Brunei Palau Micronesia Singapore ia mb Za Tanzania Burundi Rwanda Equator Namibia de Malaysia Comoros Seychelles I n d o n e s i a Malawi I N DI A N OCEAN East Timor Botswana Zimbabwe Mozam Mauritius Cam ero on Madaga (Fr.) Réunion biqu e scar Swaziland Au s t r a l ia Papua New Guinea S O U TH A TL A NTIC OCEAN South Africa or N Beaufort Sea Ger. B ah am a Spain Tunisia Portugal Morocco li ezuela Ven mbia Colo Niger ia o Cape Verde Algeria Ghana Benin xic Western Sahara a Senegal M Gambia Barbados Burkina GuineaGrenada Faso Guinea Trinidad and Tobago Bissau Suriname Sierra Leone French Guiana Liberia Togo Côte d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Sao Tome and Principe the Grenadines Guyana Me Dom. Puerto Rico (U.S.) Rep. St. Kitts & Nevis Gulf of Antigua and Barbuda Mexico Guadeloupe (Fr.) s Cu Dominica ba Martinique (Fr.) St. Lucia Jamaica Haiti St. Vincent and Belize Caribbean Sea Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Equator North U.K. Sea Neth. Ireland Belgium Lux. Switz. France N O R TH ATLAN TIC O CEAN United States Hawaii (U.S.) Den. Iceland Ecuador Gabon Per Brazil u Bo livia na Arg enti Chile uay rag Pa SOUTH P A CIFIC OC E A N Nige r Canada Labrador Sea Hudson Bay Mauritan ia Alaska (U.S.) N O RTH P A C IF IC O C EA N A R CTI C Greenland Uruguay Falkland Islands (U.K.) SO UTH ATLAN TIC O CEAN O C EA N Laptev Sea Kara Sea Barents Sea an d y r wa No en d Fi Libya Ir an Lebanon Israel ma South China Bay of Sea Bengal Cambodia na m Ca m ero o n Som alia Seychelles Comoros Palau Singapore Malaysia I n d o n e s i a INDIA N OCE A N Kiribati Equator East Timor Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Samoa e Madaga scar biq u Moz am Zimb. Botsw ana Maldives Ken ya Ugan da am b ia go Con Angola Namibia Micronesia Brunei Mauritius Réunion (Fr.) Vanuatu N W Swaziland South Africa Laos Sri Lanka Rwanda Burundi ia an Malawi nz Ta Z Taiwan Philippines Central South Ethiopia African Sudan Dem. Rep. of the Congo N OR TH PACIFIC OCEAN Thailand Djibouti Republic East China Sea Viet Sudan Eritrea em Y Japan South Korea China Bangladesh Myanmar Arabian Sea en North Sea of Korea Japan Bhutan pa l O Sea Chad Ne India n Red Egypt Kuwait Bahrain P Saudi Qatar Arabia U.A.E. Jordan ak e c eMac. Syria edit erranCyprus ean Sea Iraq Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan an Armenia Turkey ha nis tan Kos. G re B.H. Mont. M Alb. Sea of Okhotsk Mongolia is t . rb al y Aral Sea Caspian Uzbe kis Sea tan Turkm . Azerbaijan Bulg. Black Sea Lake Baikal Kazakhstan fg Se It Cro Poland Belarus Cz. Rep. . Ukraine t. vk Aus . S u n. Moldova H Rom. Slo . Georgia A Sw e nl Russia Estonia Latvia Lith. Lesotho E S Au s t r a l ia Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) THE PETERS WORLD MAP How do maps shape the way you think about the world and its people? The Earth is round. So every flat, rectangular map involves distortions. But which distortions? The Peters world map is an equal-area map, showing countries and continents in accurate proportion with one another and reducing the visual dominance of the Northern Hemisphere by shifting the equator to the middle of the map, both in sharp contrast to the more familiar Mercator projection. A n t a r c t i c a New Zealand WO R L D • P O L I T I C A L NATIONAL BOUNDARIES While humanity’s impact is quite evident, and even striking, on many remotely sensed scenes, sometimes, as in the case with most political boundaries, it is invisible. State, provincial, and national boundaries can follow natural features, such as mountain ridges, rivers, or coastlines. Artificial constructs that possess no physical ­r eality—​­for example, lines of latitude and ­longitude—​­can also determine political borders. This world political map represents the results of humanity’s efforts to slice and divide Earth into discrete spheres of influence.   The National Geographic Society recognizes 192 independent states in the world as represented here. Of those nations, 185 are members of the United Nations. Winkel Tripel Projection Essentials of Cultural Anthropology Second Edition Essentials of Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age Second Edition Kenneth J. Guest Baruch College The City University of New York W. W. Norton & Company New York • London W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing p ­ rogram—​­trade books and college ­texts—​­were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and ­today—​­with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each ­year—​­W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2018 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States Second Edition Editor: Peter Lesser Marketing Managers: Julia Hall and Erin Associate Editor: Samantha Held Design Director: Hope Miller Goodell Project Editor: Caitlin Moran Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Ashley Horna Media Editor: Eileen Connell Media Associate Editor: Mary Williams Media Assistant Editor: Grace Tuttle Brown Book Design: Kiss Me I’m Polish LLC Photo Editor: Aga Millhouse Permissions Manager: Megan Schindel Permissions Associate: Elizabeth Trammell Composition: Jouve Manufacturing: LSC Crawfordsville Permission to use copyrighted material is included on p A:23. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Guest, Kenneth J., author. Title: Essentials of cultural anthropology : a toolkit for a global age /   Kenneth J. Guest, Baruch College, The City University of New York. Description: Second Edition. | New York : W.W. Norton & Company, [2018] |   Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017038033 | ISBN 9780393624618 (paperback) Subjects: LCSH: Ethnology. | Applied anthropology. | Globalization. Classification: LCC GN316 .G845 2018 | DDC 301—dc23 LC record available at   W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 About the Author Kenneth J. Guest is Professor of Anthropology at Baruch College, CUNY, and author of God in Chinatown: Religion and Survival in New York’s Evolving Immigrant Community (2003). His research focuses on immigration, religion, globalization, ethnicity, and entrepreneurialism. Professor Guest’s ethnographic research in China and the United States traces the immigration journey of recent Chinese immigrants from Fuzhou, southeast China, who, drawn by restaurant, garment shop, and construction jobs and facilitated by a vast human smuggling network, have revitalized New York’s Chinatown. His writing explores the role of Fuzhounese religious communities in China and the United States; the religious revival sweeping coastal China; the Fuzhounese role in the rapidly expanding U.S. network of ­all-​­you-​­can-​­eat buffets and ­take-​­out restaurants; the higher education experiences of the Fuzhounese second generation; and the contestation over Chinatown’s future in the face of Manhattan’s rapid gentrification. A native of Florida, Professor Guest studied Chinese at Beijing University and Middlebury College. He received his B.A. from Columbia University (East Asian Languages and Cultures), an M.A. from Union Theological Seminary (Religious Studies), and the M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. from The City University of New York Graduate Center (Anthropology). Brief Contents Part 1: Anthropology for the 21st Century Chapter 1: Anthropology in a Global Age Chapter 2: Culture Chapter 3: Fieldwork and Ethnography Chapter 4: Language 4 30 60 90 Part 2: Unmasking the Structures of Power Chapter 5: Race and Racism Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Nationalism Chapter 7: Gender Chapter 8: Sexuality Chapter 9: Kinship, Family, and Marriage Chapter 10: Class and Inequality 118 150 176 204 232 260 Part 3: Change in the Modern World Chapter 11: The Global Economy Chapter 12: Politics and Power Chapter 13: Religion Chapter 14: Health, Illness, and the Body Chapter 15: Art and Media 294 332 362 394 424 xv Contents Preface xxix What’s New in the Second Edition xxxiii Additional Resources xxxvi Acknowledgments xxxix Part 1: Anthropology for the 21st Century Chapter 1: Anthropology in a Global Age 4 Coke, Water, and the Women of Plachimada 5 What Is Anthropology? 8 Brief Background 8 Anthropology’s Unique Approach 9 Through What Lenses Do Anthropologists Gain 12 a Comprehensive View of Human Cultures? Physical Anthropology 13 Archaeology 15 Linguistic Anthropology 16 Cultural Anthropology 17 What Is Globalization, and Why Is It Important 18 for Anthropology? Globalization and Anthropology 19 Globalization: Key Dynamics 19 Globalization and the Environment 22 How Is Globalization Transforming Anthropology? 24 Changing Communities 24 Changing Research Strategies 25 xvii Toolkit 28 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Living in a Global Age 28 Key Terms 29 Chapter 2: Culture 30 Culture and a McDonald’s Happy Meal 31 What Is Culture? 33 Culture is Learned and Taught 34 Culture is Shared Yet Contested 35 Culture is Symbolic and Material 35 How Has the Culture Concept Developed 41 in Anthropology? Early Evolutionary Frameworks 41 American Historical Particularism 42 British Structural Functionalism 43 Culture and Meaning 43 How Are Culture and Power Related? 45 Power and Cultural Institutions 46 Hegemony 47 Human Agency 48 How Much of Who You Are Is Shaped by Biology, 49 and How Much by Culture? Nature and Nurture 49 From Human Beings to Human Becomings: A Biocultural Process 51 Connecting Culture and Behavior 51 How is Culture Created? 52 Manufacturing the Desire to Consume 52 How is Globalization Transforming Culture? 54 The Global and Local in Tension: Homogenizing or Diversifying 55 Migration and the Global Flows of Culture 56 Increasing Cosmopolitanism 56 Toolkit 58 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Unpacking a Happy Meal 58 Key Terms 59 xviii Contents Chapter 3: Fieldwork and Ethnography 60 Death without Weeping: Fieldwork in a Brazilian Shantytown 61 What Is Unique about Ethnographic Fieldwork, and Why Do Anthropologists Conduct This Kind of Research? 63 Fieldwork Begins with People 64 Fieldwork Shapes the Anthropologist 64 Fieldwork as Social Science and as Art 66 Fieldwork Informs Daily Life 66 How Did the Idea of Fieldwork Develop? 67 Early Accounts of Encounters with Others 67 ­Nineteenth-​­Century Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter 68 The Professionalization of Social Scientific Data Gathering 68 and Analysis Engaged Anthropology 74 How Do Anthropologists Get Started 75 Conducting Fieldwork? Preparation 75 Strategies 76 Mapping 77 Skills and Perspectives 78 Analysis 79 How Do Anthropologists Write Ethnography? 80 Polyvocality 81 Reflexivity 81 Ethnographic Authority 82 What Moral and Ethical Concerns Guide 82 Anthropologists in Their Research and Writing? Do No Harm 82 Obtain Informed Consent 84 Ensure Anonymity 84 How Are Fieldwork Strategies Changing 85 in Response to Globalization? Changes in Process 85 Changes in Content 85 Contents xix Toolkit 88 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Applying Aspects 88 of Fieldwork to Your Own Life Key Terms 89 Chapter 4: Language 90 Language and Immigration Debates in Arizona 91 What Is Language and Where Does It Come From? 93 The Origins of Human Language 93 Descriptive Linguistics 95 Nonverbal Communication: Kinesics and Paralanguage 96 How Does Language Shape Our Ways of Thinking? 98 Language, Thought, and Culture 98 The Role of Focal Vocabulary 99 How Do Systems of Power Intersect 100 with Language and Communication? The “­N-​­Word” 100 Language and Gender 102 Language and Dialect 104 Language Variation in the United States 104 Historical Linguistics 108 What Are the Effects of Globalization on Language? 109 Diminishing Language Diversity 109 Hastening Language Loss 112 Toolkit 114 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Language, Immigration, 114 and U.S. Culture Key Terms 115 Part 2: Unmasking the Structures of Power Chapter 5: Race and Racism 118 Policing and Racial Inequality 119 xx Contents Do Biologically Separate Races Exist? 122 Fuzzy Boundaries in a ­Well-​­Integrated Gene Pool 123 The Wild Goose Chase: Linking Phenotype to Genotype 124 How Is Race Constructed around the World? 126 Race and the Legacy of Colonialism 126 How Is Race Constructed in the United States? 129 Race and the U.S. Census 130 History of U.S. Racial Categories: Constructing Whiteness 131 The Rule of Hypodescent 133 Race and Immigration 134 What Is Racism? 138 Types of Racism 139 Resisting Racism 142 Race, Racism, and Whiteness 144 Toolkit 148 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Shifting Our Perspectives 148 on Race and Racism Key Terms 149 Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Nationalism 150 The Soccer World Cup 151 What Does “Ethnicity” Mean to Anthropologists? 154 Ethnicity as Identity 154 Creating Ethnic Identity 155 How and Why Is Ethnicity Created, Mobilized, 158 and Contested? Ethnicity as a Source of Conflict 159 Ethnicity as a Source of Opportunity 164 Assimilation Versus Multiculturalism: Ethnic Interaction 166 in United States What Is the Relationship of Ethnicity to the Nation? 167 Imagined Communities and Invented Traditions 168 ­A nti-​­Colonialism and Nationalism 170 The Challenges of Developing a Sense of Nationhood 171 Contents xxi Toolkit 174 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Who Is an American? 174 Key Terms 175 Chapter 7: Gender 176 Women in the U.S. Military 177 Are Men and Women Born or Made? 179 Distinguishing between Sex and Gender 179 The Cultural Construction of Gender 181 The Performance of Gender 184 Are There More Than Two Sexes? 186 A Theory of Five Sexes 186 Alternate Sexes, Alternate Genders 188 How Do Anthropologists Explore the Relationship 190 between Gender and Power? Revisiting Early Research on Male Dominance 191 Gender Stereotypes, Gender Ideology, and Gender Stratification 193 Challenging Gender Ideologies and Stratification 196 How Is Globalization Transforming Gender 199 Roles and Stratification? Impacts on Women in the Labor Force 199 Gendered Patterns of Global Migration 201 Toolkit 202 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Broadening Your View of the 202 Cultural Construction of Gender Key Terms 203 Chapter 8: Sexuality 204 Sexual Assault on College Campuses 205 What Is Sexuality and Where Does It Come From? 208 The Intersection of Sexuality and Biology 208 Sexuality and Culture 211 What Is the Scope of Human Sexuality When Seen 212 in a Global Perspective? ­Same-​­Gender “Mati Work” in Suriname 213 xxii Contents Machismo and Sexuality in Nicaragua 214 Sexuality and Pleasure in Corporate Japan 215 How Has Sexuality Been Constructed 216 in the United States? The Invention of Heterosexuality 216 “White Weddings” 219 How Is Sexuality an Arena for Working Out 222 Relations of Power? Intersections of Race and Sexuality For Black Gay Women 222 Sex, Disability, and Social Justice in Denmark and Sweden 224 How Does Globalization Influence Local 226 Expressions of Sexuality? Sexuality, Language, and the Effects of Globalization in Nigeria 226 Toolkit 230 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Sexuality in Your Life 230 Key Terms 231 Chapter 9: Kinship, Family, and Marriage 232 Transparent: Shifting Notions of Family and Kinship in America 233 How Are We Related to One Another? 236 Descent 236 Marriage and Affinal Ties 244 Are Biology and Marriage the Only Basis for Kinship? 249 Houses, Hearths, and Kinship: The Langkawi of Malaysia 249 Creating Kin to Survive Poverty: Black Networks 251 near Chicago, Illinois How Are Ideas of Kinship Linked to the N ­ ation-​­State? 251 Reproducing Jews: Issues of Artificial Insemination in Israel 252 How Is Kinship Changing in the Modern World? 253 The Nuclear Family: The Ideal Versus the Reality 253 Chosen Families 255 The Impact of Assisted Reproductive Technologies 255 Families of ­Same-​­Sex Partners 256 Contents xxiii Toolkit 258 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Kinship in Personal 258 and Global Perspective Key Terms 259 Chapter 10: Class and Inequality 260 The Flint Water Contamination Crisis 261 Is Inequality a Natural Part of Human Culture? 263 Egalitarian Societies 264 Ranked Societies 265 How Do Anthropologists Analyze Class and Inequality? 266 Theories of Class 267 How Are Class and Inequality Constructed? 273 Ethnographic Studies of Class in the United States 274 A Look at the Numbers 277 The Roots of Poverty 279 The “Culture of Poverty”: Poverty as Pathology 280 Poverty as a Structural Economic Problem 281 What Makes Class and Inequality Largely Invisible? 282 Consumer Culture 283 What Are the Effects of Global Inequality? 284 Street Vendors in the Global Economy 285 Class and the Circulation of Water in Mumbai, India 286 Thinking Globally about Inequality 287 Toolkit 290 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: The Dynamics of Class through 290 Water and Beyond Key Terms 291 Part 3: Change in the Modern World Chapter 11: The Global ­Economy 294 Chocolate and Civil War in Côte d’Ivoire 295 xxiv Contents What Is an Economy, and What Is Its Purpose? 298 From Foraging to Industrial...
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