OXYGENATION.docx - Nur 320 Medications related to...

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Nur 320 - Medications related to Oxygenation Airflow obstruction diseases a) Asthma i. Definition – “recurrent and reversible shortness of breath and occurs when the airways become narrow because of bronchospasm, inflammation, edema of the bronchial smooth muscle and production of viscous mucus.” It is a chronic disorder. Often the trigger is an allergen that activates the immune response but in adults and some children the cause of the inflammation is not identified. a. A lot of the drugs we give, we give because of the inflammation that occurs with asthma ii. Symptoms of Asthma – wheezing and shortness of breath iii. Types of Asthma 1. Intrinsic – no history of allergies a. Just because there is “no history” of an allergy, this DOES NOT mean that they haven’t been identified. 2. Extrinsic – history of allergies and occurs with exposure 3. Exercise induced 4. Drug induced a. Drug induced asthma effects the IMMUNE RESPONSE b) Chronic bronchitis Key component in COPD i. Definition – “ continuous inflammation and low-grade infection of the bronchi.” Excessive mucus secretion is also present with a chronic cough ii. Often caused by inhaled irritants – smoking, pollution, occupational exposure a. Productive cough 2. It is hard for air to get passed the built up mucus, causing narrowing airways. c) Emphysema i. Definition – alveoli enlarge, and destruction of the alveolar walls occurs, so the alveoli cannot collapse, allowing there to have air stuck in the alveoli ii. Often is caused by inhaled irritants – smoking, pollution, occupational exposure 1. It is hard to get air OUT of the alveoli, due to narrowing airways. iii. Protease inhibitor production is inhibited , these inhibitors are protective. Since they are inhibited in Emphysema, alveolar walls are destroyed, and elastic alveolar recoil is decreased. 1. Protease Inhibitors protect alveolar walls and when they aren’t protected anymore, they can cause damage to the alveolar walls.
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Inhalation route Medications a) Most anti-asthmatic medications are administered by inhalation. i. Advantages of this route 1. Drugs are administered directly to the site of action, about 30 second onset 2. There are less systemic effects because of direct contact with the lungs 3. When used in an acute attack, the relief is rapid ii. Types of inhalation devices 1. Metered-dose inhalers (MDI) a. Small pressurized device that delivers a pre-set dose of medication b. Can be difficult for some people to use because the person must begin to inhale prior to activating the device. This means they need good teaching c. Spacers can be used if coordination problems are present. These allow for medication to be inhaled and not stay in the mouth which is what happens if the person doesn’t start to inhale before administering the med. There are many different brands.
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  • Spring '14
  • DianeM.Tomasic

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