Final Study Guide - Final African savanna fragmentation...

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Final - African savanna, fragmentation, seed dispersal, frugivores, predators, defense compounds (plants), and chapter book Succession Gaps and Biodiversity If you stop disturbance and you give time for land to come back, it will recover Gaps - hole in forest Small gap - tree falling Large gap - forest fire Lets light into forest floor, creating a lot of biodiversity Hubbell studies stems and seeds Categorized as: Pioneer Intermediate Shade tolerant Found that in gaps you have most biodiversity and growth All these species were present No correlation between species richness and gaps Most of the seeds were not present in all locations Most abundant species were only in 15% of locations Idea: not about being the best but being at the right place at the right time Stochastic forces and chance! Disturbances Natural disturbances Landslides, falling tree, flooding, storms, fires Human disturbances Logging, pastures, agriculture Old growth forest - forest that hasnt been humanly disturbed for 200-300 years Only about 7% remains in the US and few in Northern areas Succession Primary - takes 100s of years before life comes gain because area has no soil base Human - mining Natural - volcano eruption Secondary - soil is present and seeds are present already and able to recover in a few decades Human - agriculture (making new area with same soil for different crops) Natural - fire (soil is still there) Biggest difference is if the soil is there or not
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Doil matters a lot because it takes a long time to make ~ 500 years Secondary Succession Phases Phase 1 - rapid colonization (first 10 years) Annuals and bi-annuals - herbs, shrubs, climbers Phase 2 - form canopy (10-30 years) Pioneer species Phase 3 - increase in biomass, species richness, and increase in competition (30-100 years) Shade tolerant, non-pioneer sun loving trees Phase 4 - full canopy and lost of shade tolerant plants, very complex Beginning plants There’s a constant turnover species Secondary forest needs a machete to walk thru because the canopy is low and dense All species are present but it’s just who is growing the most based on climatic conditions in early succession Epiphytes are seen later because they sit on top of trees and need moisture Pioneer species seen early because they love light Heliconia often seen in disturbed areas Takal Massive deforestation for agriculture and people disappeared Went back after abandones and forest has reclaimed the land The world without us What would happen to the ecosystem if humans disappeared and distrubances were ceased? Too much disturbance gets you really reduced biodiversity Adaptation to disturbances Disturbances are common so species have adapted Seeds remain dormant for 40 years Large seed banks in soil Plants that have been suppressed by dense shade now have light to grow
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