Psycho analytic theory.docx

Psycho analytic theory.docx - Psychoanalytic Theory*Sigmund...

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Psychoanalytic Theory *Sigmund Freud: ( /fr d/ ɔɪ FROYD ; [3] German: [ zi km nt f t] ˈ ː ʊ ˈ ʁɔʏ ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis , a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. [4] Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg , in the Austrian Empire . He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna . [5] [6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. [7] Freud lived and worked in Vienna , having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis . He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference , establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. [8] His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression . On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego . [9] Freud postulated the existence of libido , a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive , the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. [10] In his later works, Freud developed a wide- ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology , psychiatry , and psychotherapy , and across the humanities . It thus continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. [11] Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden 's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives. *Development of psychoanalysis : In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a three-month fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot , a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis. He was later to recall the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. Charcot specialized in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis, which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience.
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