Zander Perry and Phil Myers
AP US History
THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE and a NEW NATION EMERGES (1775-1787)
Loyalists in America- During the War of Independence, American Patriots not
only had to fight the British, but also colonials who were loyal to the king-the
Loyalists accounted for about 20 percent of the American people
during the revolution.
The majority of conservative Americans were Loyalists.
These colonists were satisfied with their lives-having an education, wealth, and
comfort-and were fearful of the effect the Revolution would have on their
Older Americans tended to be Loyalists as well, whereas energetic and
impassioned young people represented the revolutionary zeal.
The king's officers
and the Anglican clergy were another part of the Loyalists.
Though the Loyalists
were generally strongest where the Anglican Church was dominant, Virginia was
Here, Anglican aristocrats joined rebels in an attempt to escape
The Loyalists were numerous in areas like aristocratic New York City
and Charleston, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, while they were least numerous in
Once the Declaration of Independence had been signed, the hostility towards
Hundreds of the Loyalists were imprisoned and some were
Despite this harsh treatment, widespread terror did not prevail.
perhaps because of the colonists' regard for order, but more likely because of the
Loyalists' exodus to British territory.
Most of the supporters of King George III
were either forced out of or fled from America.
Loyalists helped the British during the war by fighting, acting as spies, inciting
Indians, and keeping Patriots busy at home.
However, the arrogant British made
the mistake of not fully utilizing this enthusiastic group in the fighting.
Washington's Crossing (1776) - In July 1776, a massive British fleet of 500
ships and 35,000-armed soldiers arrived off the coast of New York. General
George Washington and his forces, numbering only 18,000, met the British in the
Battle of Long Island. Outmaneuvered by British forces, the Americans retreated
and barely escaped to Manhattan. After crossing the Hudson River into New
Jersey, Washington's troops finally reached the Delaware River. The British had
trailed the Americans all the way, taunting them with foxhunting calls. By the
time the Americans had crossed the Delaware, morale among the troops was
extremely low. However, William Howe, the general chasing Washington, did not
crush the crippled American forces.
Washington, having escaped the British pursuit from the north, made a daring
move. On Christmas Day, Washington and his forces of a little over 2,000 crossed