Apush Outline #4-The War for Independence

Apush Outline #4-The War for Independence - Zander Perry...

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Zander Perry and Phil Myers AP US History 9-27-05 THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE and a NEW NATION EMERGES (1775-1787) I. The War A. Loyalists in America- During the War of Independence, American Patriots not only had to fight the British, but also colonials who were loyal to the king-the Loyalists. Loyalists accounted for about 20 percent of the American people during the revolution. The majority of conservative Americans were Loyalists. These colonists were satisfied with their lives-having an education, wealth, and comfort-and were fearful of the effect the Revolution would have on their situations. Older Americans tended to be Loyalists as well, whereas energetic and impassioned young people represented the revolutionary zeal. The king's officers and the Anglican clergy were another part of the Loyalists. Though the Loyalists were generally strongest where the Anglican Church was dominant, Virginia was an exception. Here, Anglican aristocrats joined rebels in an attempt to escape their debt. The Loyalists were numerous in areas like aristocratic New York City and Charleston, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, while they were least numerous in New England. Once the Declaration of Independence had been signed, the hostility towards Loyalists increased. Hundreds of the Loyalists were imprisoned and some were hanged. Despite this harsh treatment, widespread terror did not prevail. This was perhaps because of the colonists' regard for order, but more likely because of the Loyalists' exodus to British territory. Most of the supporters of King George III were either forced out of or fled from America. Loyalists helped the British during the war by fighting, acting as spies, inciting Indians, and keeping Patriots busy at home. However, the arrogant British made the mistake of not fully utilizing this enthusiastic group in the fighting. B. Washington's Crossing (1776) - In July 1776, a massive British fleet of 500 ships and 35,000-armed soldiers arrived off the coast of New York. General George Washington and his forces, numbering only 18,000, met the British in the Battle of Long Island. Outmaneuvered by British forces, the Americans retreated and barely escaped to Manhattan. After crossing the Hudson River into New Jersey, Washington's troops finally reached the Delaware River. The British had trailed the Americans all the way, taunting them with foxhunting calls. By the time the Americans had crossed the Delaware, morale among the troops was extremely low. However, William Howe, the general chasing Washington, did not crush the crippled American forces. Washington, having escaped the British pursuit from the north, made a daring move. On Christmas Day, Washington and his forces of a little over 2,000 crossed
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the ice-clogged Delaware River into New Jersey. The Americans forged on to Trenton, where they surprised the paid German soldiers, known as Hessians, who were still dazed from their Christmas celebration. A thousand Hessians were captured. A week later, Washington led his forces to Trenton, where they were
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Apush Outline #4-The War for Independence - Zander Perry...

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