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Apush Outline #5-Johnny Adams and T.J.

Apush Outline #5-Johnny Adams and T.J. - Zander Perry and...

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Zander Perry and Punkzon Phil AP US History October 5, 2005 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson (1797-1809) The Deepening of Federalist and Jeffersonian Divisions I. Federalist and Jeffersonian Political Disputes A. Election of 1796- With Washington out of office, the Federalists and the Democratic- Republicans were ready to campaign for the presidency. Although Alexander Hamilton was the best known Federalist, his chances of being elected were slim because of his financial policies**. The Federalists therefore chose John Adams, Washington's vice president, as their candidate. Thomas Jefferson was the candidate of the Democratic- Republicans. The campaign of 1796 inspired fervor among the political parties and divided their members even more sharply than before. John Adams narrowly won the election and Jefferson, the runner up, became the vice president (at the time, the candidate with the second highest amount of votes became vice president). Although he had won the election, Adams faced many difficulties as president. Adams, as an insensitive aristocrat, did not gain much popularity among the public. He took the position of the great George Washington, a position he could never fill just as well. Also, Hamilton hated Adams and resigned from the Treasury in 1795 to lead a new faction of the Federalist Party, the "High Federalists", which conspired against Adams. Perhaps Adams' worst problem was the high tension with France caused by Jay's Treaty. B. Naturalization Act (1798) – The Federalists in control of Congress passed the Naturalization Act of 1798 in order to oppress pro-Jefferson immigrants. These poor Europeans voted for the Jeffersonians. The Naturalization Act prevented the aliens from attaining citizenship until they had resided in the United States for fourteen years, up from the previous requirement of five. This new law was important because it violated the American traditions of open-door policy and fast citizenship accommodations. C. Alien and Sedition Act (1798) - To exploit the anti-French sentiments in America, Federalists pushed Congress in 1798 to pass laws that would oppress the Jeffersonians. The first of these laws, the Alien act, targeted aliens (noncitizens) in America by raising the residency requirements for citizens from five years to fourteen years. The President was also given the power to deport potentially dangerous immigrants in times of peace and to deport or jail them in times of war. By passing the Alien act the Federalists hoped to weaken Jeffersonians, whose democratic views had won over the majority of poor European immigrants. The act went against American tradition by rejecting the idea of hospitality for immigrants and by granting arbitrary power to the president. The other act passed at this time was the Sedition Act, placing restrictions on the highly valued freedoms of speech and of the press granted by the First Amendment. The Sedition Act allowed for the imprisonment or heavy fining of any person who obstructed
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government or slandered its officials.
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