Research Paper-Final.docx - 1 Running head RESEARCH PAPER...

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1Running head: RESEARCH PAPER FINALResearch Paper: FinalAndrea MoralesGrand Canyon University PCN 527Professor Tina Clark-DentFebruary 2, 2019
2RESEARCH PAPER FINALResearch Paper FinalOpioid and alcohol abuse have been on the rise in recent years, becoming an epidemic where more and more people are overdosing from the drug. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an overview of the brief history, pharmacology, current trends or issues, social concerns of both opioids and alcohol. Along with the relevance of alcohol and opioids on the counseling profession. Finally, any implications needed for the future.History of Opioids and AlcoholOpioidsThe first time opium was introduced to the United States was in the year 1775. Then, in the 1860s morphine was given to treat soldiers in the Civil War, about 400,000 of the soldiers who received opioids became addicted (Foundations Recovery Network. 2017). By the late 1800’s there was high addiction rate from opioids. The reason opioid addiction was rapidly risingwas because opioids were available over-the-counter. Being able to sell opioids over-the-counter gave Bayer brands the opportunity to sell heroin for pain relieve and cough without the need of a prescription (Foundations Recovery Network. 2017). In 1910, individuals in the US started crushing and inhaling opioids in order to receive a better high. Then, in 1914 the Harrison Narcotics Act made all opioid medication only available via prescription to limit any recreationalusage (Foundations Recovery Network. 2017). Afterwards, in 1976-1986 the FDA approved Percocet and Vicodin. Recognizing the benefits opioids provided to treat pain caused by cancer, the World Health Organization recommended opioid usage as a las resort in 1986 (Foundations Recovery Network. 2017). Unfortunately, between 2000-2012 opioid consumption peaked from 46,946 kg to 165,525 kg, rising more and more each year (Jones, Viswanath, Peck, Kaye, Gill, &Simopoulos, 2018).
3RESEARCH PAPER FINALAlcoholBetween the 1600 and 1700 the Puritans departed to the New World bringing more beer than water (Hanson, D.J., 2018). The first time alcohol was believed to be made in the United States was in 1563, when Spaniards made wine in Florida from wild grapes they found. After, in the 1830’s most temperance organizations thought the only way they can place a stop to alcohol abuse was by preventing all consumption of alcohol (Hanson, D.J., 2018). Resulting in all shipment or importation of alcoholic beverages were banned, state wide prohibition in the year 1920. By the time 1918 came, the War Time Prohibition Act was passed in order to save grain and additional materials for soldiers fighting in WWII. Finally, the prohibition of alcoholic beverages ended in December 5, 1933 (Hanson, D.J., 2018).Psychopharmacology of Alcohol and OpioidsOpioidsSome of the effects opioids have on the body are collapsed veins, sedation, and slows down the digestive system. Unfortunately, chronic use can generate greater sensitivity to pain, reduced the immune system, and slows down breathing therefore might become lethal for the user (American Addiction Centers, 2019).

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