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1/17/181AN OVERVIEW OF ASSESSMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOODCDFS 315Objectives◦Explain the purposes of assessment in early childhood◦Describe the history of tests and measurements in early childhood◦Discuss issues and trends in assessing all young childrenWhat is assessment?◦“Assessment is the process of gathering information about children from several forms of evidence, than organizing and interpreting the information” ( McAfee, Leong, & Bodrova, 2004, p.3)◦Children are measured before birth with assessment of fetal growth and development◦At birth and through infancy and early childhood, children are measured and evaluated on growth and development, through medical examinations◦Children are measured by observation of development milestones ◦Assessment levels much be matched to a child’s mental, social, and physical development ◦Assessment can have different meanings with different age groupsPurpose of assessment◦Assessment is used for various purposes◦Evaluation◦Asses a young child’s development overall or specific developmental domains◦Diagnosis◦Identify developmental delay or cause of poor performance◦Placement◦Provide special services ◦Program planning◦Assessment results can be used to evaluate intervention program/services◦Research◦To better understand behavior and appropriateness of provided experiences
1/17/182The History of Tests and Measurements in Early Childhood◦The Child Study Movement◦Charles Darwin suggested that studying the development of an infant one could glimpse the development of the human species and initiated the scientific study of the child◦G. Stanley Hall established a major center for child study◦Laboratory schools and nursey schools were used to observe children in group settings, and could include the family to broaden the understanding of child development ◦The hundreds of children studied lead to an abundance of literature and taught us how to use observation and other strategies to assess the child◦Today-brain research has opened a new perspective of the nature of cognitive development and the importance of the early years for optimum development and later learningStandardized Tests◦Public schools developed tests to determine the level and pace of instruction and the grouping of students ◦First efforts were informal-psychologist, researcher, or physician developed a procedure to meet those needs◦Precise measurements were then developed to evaluate learning-by 1918 there were