PSY 13 Notes Test 3

PSY 13 Notes Test 3 - Stereotyping Imagine A flight...

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Stereotyping Imagine… A flight attendant Taxi driver Jewish doctor African-American musician Key Concepts     Belief     Stereotypes : beliefs  about a person or individual based on that  person’s group membership.  Have no valence (are neither positive or  negative) Affect   Prejudice : negative feelings  about someone based on their group  membership (can be subtle, doesn’t have to be hatred) Cognition   Discrimination:  negative behavior  towards someone based on  group membership Why Stereotypes?     Remember, we rely on schemas  and other shortcuts Humans have a tendency to categorize o We group objects according to salient features: we do this for people  as well o Ex: attractiveness, gender, race, age o Naturally note these things and make perceptions based on them Social Categorization     We overestimate differences between groups
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We underestimate differences within groups Expectations color our perceptions Focus on stereotypes – consistent information Don’t notice (or rationalize away) inconsistent info Ingroup/Outgroup     OUTGROUP HOMOGENEITY EFFECT o Belief that there is a greater similarity among outgroups than ingroups Reasons: o Limited contact with outgroups o More familiarity with ingroup Stereotype Contact     “Kernel of Truth” idea   some things really ARE that way o Society has deeply ingrained beliefs about gender (and other)  differences New parents of boys vs girls Beliefs regarding social roles Sources of those beliefs: o History o Religion
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o Literature o Movies o Advertising Stereotype Perpetuation     Attributions (that’s because….) Subtyping (well yeah, but…) Illusory correlations o Overestimate association of distinctive variables o Why are most comedians Jews? Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o Expectation   Your Behavior   Their behavior   confirms  expectation o Ex: Job interviews o In study 1, white Ps told to interview job candidates When interviewee was black, white Ps: Made less eye contact Sat farther away Made more speech errors Spent less time asking questions In study 2, whites Ps interviewed
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Confederates use different interview styles: Cold, impersonal style of study 1 whites interviewing  blacks Warm style of study 1 whites interviewing whites People less impressed with whites interviewed COLD Stereotype Automaticity     Devine (1989) o Subliminal Presentation      of stereotypes – relevant words to white Ps o
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PSY 13 Notes Test 3 - Stereotyping Imagine A flight...

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