PSY13 Notes Test 2

PSY13 Notes Test 2 - Attitudes, Part I What is an attitude...

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Attitudes, Part I What is an attitude and how is it measured? How do others persuade us to change our attitudes? How do our own actions persuade us to change our attitudes? What is an attitude? An enduring evaluation of our reactions to people, objects, or ideals Can be positive or negative Can be strong or weak Self-Report Measures Question or series of questions about a topic Advantages : cheap, easy, quickt Disadvantages: Limitations of introspection o Nisbett and Wilson (1977) Concerns about self-representation Do Attitudes Really Exist? Norbert Schwartz: attitudes are CONSTRUCTED (they aren’t in there to be tapped out) Called people on phone in CA and MI o “How satisfied are you with your life?”
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Answers depended on whether he asked about the weather first Therefore, attitudes cant really be that stable if you can change them so easily Tim Wilson : Attitudes are FRAGILE Has Ps introspect, think about attitudes Had people pick which poster they wanted, and had some write about why they picked that one The people who had thought about which the one they wanted were unhappier with it later on Physiological Measures Movement of facial muscles Heart rate Skin response Other Nonreactive Measures Reaction time Eye contact and body posture Desire for proximity (and other covert measures) Attitude Change Two Routes to Persuasion Central route Peripheral route
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Central Route You scrutinize and think carefully about the issue Ask yourself questions, engaging yourself When using the central route: o You’re influenced by the strength of arguments on both sides o Very thoughtful, mindful process NOT necessarily right Peripheral Route Audiences not particularly thoughtful “The receptive ability of the masses is very limited” – Adolf Hitler (1933) We’re often cognitive misers We rely on shortcuts like heuristics, schema, and stereotypes Why we have celebrity spokespeople COGNITIVE ABILITY AND MOTIVATION DETERMINE WHICH ROUTE WE TAKE Factors Message source The message itself Audience Message Source Credibility o Competent people are more credible o Trustworthy people are too
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Likeability o Similarity increases likeability o Attractiveness does too o Petty et al. (1981) Ps hear about comprehensive exams For invested Ps, argument quality was most influential Suggests central route to persuasion, therefore sources doesn’t really matter For uninvested Ps, info regarding the source expertise was important Suggests peripheral route Sleeper Effect o Over time, we often forget source of argument o Therefore, even low credibility source can be influential in long run Message Itself Influence of message depends on route to persuasion For central route, messages with strong supporting evidence most influential For peripheral route, the number of facts is more influential
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course PSY 13 taught by Professor Sommers during the Spring '06 term at Tufts.

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PSY13 Notes Test 2 - Attitudes, Part I What is an attitude...

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