Notes Test 2

Notes Test 2 - Experimental Basics, Part I Experimental...

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Unformatted text preview: Experimental Basics, Part I Experimental Research Design Experimental Basics, Part I Variable Types Independent (IV) o What we manipulate or vary o Sets apart experimental from other types of design o How we create experimental conditions o Aka Treatment variable Dependent (DV) o What we assess or measure o We believe DV will depend on IV o Outcome variable Basic Experiment Does change in IV lead to change in DV? To what extent does IV influence DV? (cause, lead to change) Variable Types For any experiment you have 2 o Both a conceptual and operational IV o Both a conceptual and operational DV You want to study influence of physiological arousal on memory Youre interested in how hunger affects motor skills o Conceptual IV = hunger o Operational IV = People you tell to eat @ buffet or sit in room o Conceptual DV = motor skills o Operational DV = whether they do well on task You want to examine effects of aversive auditory stimuli on aggression Experimental Design what makes a study an experiment? 1) Manipulation REQUIRED o Refers to systematic variation of a variable (IV) by the researchers o Must hold everything constant between groups except for this manipulation o DOING THIS ALLOWS YOU TO DRAW CAUSAL CONCLUSIONS 2) Random assignment (to the extent that there are conditions) 3) Standardization across conditions o Without it, you can have random error o Even worse , you could have systematic error and confounds (ex: Beatles people listen outdoors but Celine Dion people listen indoors) This leads to low INTERNAL VALIDITY Experimental Basics, Part 2 Design Comparison Correlational No causality Interchangeable variables Variables measured May be worried about random selection Examine full range of both variables Can study anything Experimental Causal conclusions IV vs DV One variable manipulated, another measured Random assignment essential Comparing two or more groups Ethical and practical limitations Experimental Basics, Part II Manipulation SYSTEMATIC Deception, artificiality, and control or NOT EQUAL to manipulation Key to experimental design Affords researchers complete control 4 Between-group differences in DV must result from IV Milgram (1963) NOT AN EXPERIMENT. THIS WAS A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY o Cover Story: deceptive explanation given to participants about upcoming study Zimbardo (1972) o Stanford Prison Study (but was actually an EXPERIMENT) o It had random assignment, and was therefore an experiment...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course PSY 32 taught by Professor Sommers during the Spring '06 term at Tufts.

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Notes Test 2 - Experimental Basics, Part I Experimental...

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