Medical Interventions: Unit 1 Study Guide MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS Definition anything that is used to treat, prevent, cure, or relieve the symptoms of human suffering whether it is caused by a disease, accident, or something as simple as hygiene Examples crutches, casts, antibiotics, vaccinations, surgery, cotton, bandages, etc. BACTERIA Review The Structure of Bacteria and the Function of Each Structure - Nucleoids : gel-like region within the cytoplasm containing the single, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule - Chromosomal DNA is supercoiled (tightly packed) - Contains all genetic information necessary for normal functioning of the cell - Ribosomes : structures involved in protein synthesis - Facilitate joining of amino acids - Cell wall : rigid barrier that surrounds cell, keeping the contents from bursting out - Peptidoglycan provides rigidity of cell wall - Plasma Membrane : semipermeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of cell - Phospholipid bilayer is embedded with proteins that act as barrier between the cytoplasm and outside environment - Capsule : distinct and gelatinous later (glycocalyx) enveloping the cell - Layer enables bacterial cell to adhere to specific surfaces and sometimes protects bacterial cells from human immune systems - Flagella : protein appendages that are anchored in the membrane and protrude out from the surface - Spin like propellers, moving bacteria cell forward - Pili : appendages which are similar in structure to flagella, but have a different function - Can enable bacterial cell to attach to specific surface (fimbriae) - Can be involved in conjugation (DNA transferred from one bacterial cell to another (sex pilus)) Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide molecules that make-up outer leaflet of outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria Different from exotoxins (proteins synthesized by both Gram negative and Gram positive and functions as potent toxins)
Methods Bacteria Use to Transfer or Accept New DNA ( pls add onto this …. I didn’t have my notes…) - Conjugation: cell to cell contact - Transduction: by bacteriophages - Transformation: from the environment Differences Between Gram + and Gram - Bacteria - Gram + - Cell wall contains thick layer of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids - Approximately twenty times more peptidoglycan than in Gram - - No outer membrane is present - No porins present - Stain is purple - Gram - - Cell wall contains multiple layers, including thin layer of peptidoglycan - Outside layer is called outer membrane, which is made of lipid bilayer whose outside is composed of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) - Outer membrane serves as barrier to passage of most molecules and contains specialized proteins (porins), which allows certain molecules to pass through membrane - Region between plasma membrane and outer membrane is called periplasm and is filled with gel-like fluid and proteins involved in variety of cellular activities - Stained pinkish-red Plasmids: circular double stranded DNA molecules - 0.1%-10% of the size of the chromosomal DNA and only carry few to several hundred genes -
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