Medical Interventions_ Unit 1 Study Guide-2.pdf - Medical Interventions Unit 1 Study Guide MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS Definition \u200banything that is used to

Medical Interventions_ Unit 1 Study Guide-2.pdf - Medical...

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Medical Interventions: Unit 1 Study Guide MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS Definition anything that is used to treat, prevent, cure, or relieve the symptoms of human suffering whether it is caused by a disease, accident, or something as simple as hygiene Examples crutches, casts, antibiotics, vaccinations, surgery, cotton, bandages, etc. BACTERIA Review The Structure of Bacteria and the Function of Each Structure - Nucleoids : gel-like region within the cytoplasm containing the single, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule - Chromosomal DNA is supercoiled (tightly packed) - Contains all genetic information necessary for normal functioning of the cell - Ribosomes : structures involved in protein synthesis - Facilitate joining of amino acids - Cell wall : rigid barrier that surrounds cell, keeping the contents from bursting out - Peptidoglycan provides rigidity of cell wall - Plasma Membrane : semipermeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of cell - Phospholipid bilayer is embedded with proteins that act as barrier between the cytoplasm and outside environment - Capsule : distinct and gelatinous later (glycocalyx) enveloping the cell - Layer enables bacterial cell to adhere to specific surfaces and sometimes protects bacterial cells from human immune systems - Flagella : protein appendages that are anchored in the membrane and protrude out from the surface - Spin like propellers, moving bacteria cell forward - Pili : appendages which are similar in structure to flagella, but have a different function - Can enable bacterial cell to attach to specific surface (fimbriae) - Can be involved in conjugation (DNA transferred from one bacterial cell to another (sex pilus)) Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide molecules that make-up outer leaflet of outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria Different from exotoxins (proteins synthesized by both Gram negative and Gram positive and functions as potent toxins)
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Methods Bacteria Use to Transfer or Accept New DNA ( pls add onto this …. I didn’t have my notes…) - Conjugation: cell to cell contact - Transduction: by bacteriophages - Transformation: from the environment Differences Between Gram + and Gram - Bacteria - Gram + - Cell wall contains thick layer of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids - Approximately twenty times more peptidoglycan than in Gram - - No outer membrane is present - No porins present - Stain is purple - Gram - - Cell wall contains multiple layers, including thin layer of peptidoglycan - Outside layer is called outer membrane, which is made of lipid bilayer whose outside is composed of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) - Outer membrane serves as barrier to passage of most molecules and contains specialized proteins (porins), which allows certain molecules to pass through membrane - Region between plasma membrane and outer membrane is called periplasm and is filled with gel-like fluid and proteins involved in variety of cellular activities - Stained pinkish-red Plasmids: circular double stranded DNA molecules - 0.1%-10% of the size of the chromosomal DNA and only carry few to several hundred genes -
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