What is the term used to describe a qualitative researcher’s awareness of personal biases and past experiences that might influence responses to either the participants or the data, and the use of that awareness, so that the data can be analyzed honestly and intellectually?ReflexivityReflexivity is an awareness and ability to be involved with the participants and yet be able to analyze data abstractly with intellectual honesty.What is the range of time a researcher should allow for transcription of a 1-hour interview?3–8 hoursTranscription may require 3–8 hours for each hour of interview or focus group time, depending on the equipment used and the transcriber’s skill.What is the typical size and duration of a focus group interview?5–10 participants; 45–120 minutesFocus groups typically last from 45 minutes to 2 hours. They consist of one or more groups of five to ten participants.The whole point of the qualitative interview is to elicit information: to encourage the participant to share by creating rapport and space. Which of the following might create rapport and give the impression that the interviewer is interested?The researcher looks empathetic, listens carefully, and nods appropriately.The interviewer should practice looking empathetic and communicating without words. Examples would be nodding instead of saying, “Yes,” and chuckling without laughing aloud at humor. More neutral responses allow the interviewee to share good and bad, including socially undesirable feelings and thoughts.Which of the following steps of the qualitative research process differ from those of the quantitative research process?Sampling methodsSampling methods are implemented differently in qualitative research than in quantitative. In qualitative research, the researcher uses nonrandom methods almost exclusively. Data collection strategies are different in qualitative than in quantitative research, resulting in data that can be interpreted. In addition, qualitative strategies may be altered in response to new ideas. The reasoning process of data management in qualitative research involves inductive thinking, as it guides the organizing, reducing, and clustering of data. Data organization in quantitative research is guided by deductive reasoning. Data analysis techniques in qualitative research often begin as data are gathered, whereas quantitative research data are analyzed at the completion of data collection. The process in qualitative research is one of reflection rather than computation. The early steps of the qualitative research process described in Chapters 5 and 6—choosing a problem area and purpose and identifying conceptual definitions of the study areas—are similar to the early steps of the quantitative research process.
CORRECTData collection strategiesSampling methods are implemented differently in qualitative research than in quantitative. In qualitative research, the researcher uses nonrandom methods almost exclusively. Data collection strategies are different in qualitative than in quantitative research, resulting in data that can be interpreted. In