IDs Definition Asia – China, India and parts of Eurasia Song Dynasty The Song Dynasty (960-1279) ushered in a period of social and cultural vitality in China. The emperor introduced a central bureaucracy of scholar-officials chosen through competitive civil service examinations (which became the ruling elite) – reflecting a crucial shift from the powerful hereditary aristocracy to the less wealthy but highly schooled class of scholar officials. Chinggis Khan Also known as Genghis Khan, he launched a series of conquests towards China, Persia and Korea, solidifying the Mongol Empire that would rule the huge landmass of Eurasia. Kubilai Khan He conquered southern China as part of the Mongol Empire. Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire was one of the largest land empires in history throughout the 13 th and 14 th centuries. They changed the political and social landscape of the territories they conquered, and introduced Persian, Islamic and Byzantine influences on China’s architecture, art, science and medicine. They also led to the opening of China to the rest of the world, and encouraged an Afro-Eurasian interconnectedness. Ming Dynasty The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368-1644 years after the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming Dynasty had strong stability and centralization with a strong focus on bureaucracy and good administration. The admiral Zheng He was part of this dynasty. The Ming Dynasty also introduced the need for silver to pay for taxes, which led to the Europeans rush for silver in order to pay for Chinese products. Zheng He Zheng He was an admiral of the Ming Empire, and he was in charge of expeditions from China and demonstrated China’s naval power. Sufism Sufism helped to spread Islam from 1000-1300 CE. Sufi brotherhoods carried the faith to India, across the Sahara Desert, and to many other distant locations. As trade increased and more converts appeared in Islamic lands, Islam became more accommodating, embracing Persian literature. Turkish ruling skills and Arabic- language contributions in law, religion, literature and science. This brought life to the term ‘Middle-East’. Delhi Sultanate Turkish Muslim rulers that brought political integration and strengthened the cultural diversity and tolerance of India, allowing them to worship other religions. Safavid Dynasty The Safavid Empire transformed Iran into a Shiite stronghold. They rested on the legitimacy of an Islamic foundation, and came into being after the political vacuum brought about by the Black Death. Isfahan Isfahan was the capital of Iran during the Safavid’s Dynasty rule, and reflected the splendor of the empire. Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was established after the Delhi Sultanate went into decline, and embraced the same Indian traditions of religious and cultural tolerance.
Taj Mahal It was commissioned by the Mughal emperor for the tomb of his favourite wife, and served to project the splendor of the Mughal empire and a symbol of India’s rich history.
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