Inflammation, Infection and Fever.ppt - Inflammation Fever Infection NUR 226 G MCGINTY MSN RN Objectives o Explain the pathophysiology of inflammation

Inflammation, Infection and Fever.ppt - Inflammation Fever...

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NUR 226 G. MCGINTY, MSN, RN Inflammation, Fever, Infection
Objectives o Explain the pathophysiology of inflammation and fever o Outline basic steps in acute inflammatory response o Explain role of chemical mediators in the inflammatory response o Outline general strategies for treating inflammation o Compare and contrast NSAIDS o Explain the role of corticosteroids in the inflammatory response
Review of Body Defenses Mechanical Barriers: Defense mechanisms used by the body to protect itself from any injurious agent may be specific or nonspecific Nonspecific Mechanisms Skin or mucous membrane: often called the first line of defense Second line of defense includes processes of phagocytosis and inflammation Specific Mechanisms Third line of defense provides protection: stimulates the production of unique antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes following exposure to specific substances.
Inflammation Natural, nonspecific defense mechanism Occurs in response to an injury or antigen Inflammation limits spread of injury or antigen Contains injury Destroys microorganisms Acute- 8-10 days Chronic – months or years
Signs/Symptoms of Inflammation Swelling Pain Warmth Redness
Inflammation The general signs and symptoms of inflammation serve as a warring of a problem, which may be hidden within the body Inflammation is not the same as infection Infection: microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi are always present at the site causing the inflammation.
Chemical Mediators Alert surrounding tissue of injury Histamine Serotonin Leukotrienes Bradykinin Complement Prostaglandins Interstitial fluid and blood Cytokines serve as communicators in the tissue fluids, sending messages to lymphocytes and macrophages, the immune system or the hypothalamus to induce fever.
Chemical Mediators Many of these chemicals also intensify the effects of other chemicals in the response Many anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistamines reduce the effects of some of these chemical mediators
Histamine The key chemical mediator of inflammation Released from mast cells Located in skin, bronchial tree, GI tract, along blood vessels Can initiate inflammatory response w/in seconds Causes dilation of vessels, increased permeability, Itching, Smooth-muscle constriction Also responsible for anaphylaxis
Histamine Receptors Histamine can produce its effects by interacting with two different receptors H 1 receptors: found in vascular smooth muscle , in bronchi, and on sensory nerves Stimulation results in itching, pain, edema, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction Characteristic of inflammation and allergy H 2 receptors located in stomach Stimulation results in secretion of hydrochloric acid
Leukotrienes Released from mast cells Similar effects to those of histamines
Bradykinin Present in mast cells and in plasma Vasodilates and causes pain Effects similar to histamine Broken down by angiotensin converting enzyme

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