CHEM 181 Topic 8 Lesson 1: Chocolate Video 1 Chocolate – “the Food of the Gods” o Theobroma Cacao o Aztec used cacao to satisfy the gods in liquid form in gold goblets In 1995 – 30% of men and 38% of women claim to prefer chocolate over sex o Quebec – 74% o Nova Scotia – 20% More than 500 chemicals in chocolate o Phenylacetic acid o Dimethylsulfide o 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol Melting point is 36 degrees Celsius o Just one degree below body temperature o As soon as you put it in your mouth, it starts melting o Believed that what people really enjoy is the melting sensation Cacao is very difficult to dissolve On its own, cacao is very bitter o Xocoatl – “bitter” Aztecs used cacao as currency (beans) Spaniards believed cacao had aphrodisiac properties o Became popular in Europe as a beverage Mixed with sugar, vanilla, and cinnamon Canada (2004) 4kg (9lbs) per person per year of chocolate consumed Video 2 Cacao flower belongs to same family as orchid o Flowers that get converted to cacao buds grow throughout the branches No season, grow throughout the year Big names: o Forastero o Criollo – best of all cocoa o Trinitero When cacao is ripe, it is picked up and split open o The cocoa nibs have a white coating over them o The cocoa is left open and the seeds start fermenting As they ferment, the sugar gets converted to alcohol, which is converted to acetic acid, which is converted to esters This adds flavor to the cocoa o Once fermentation is finished, cocoa seeds are left to dry in the sun o After drying, they are roasted This extracts and enhances flavor of the beans
Maillard Reaction – chemical reaction that involves the reaction between amino acids in protein and various sugars, which gives taste o The seeds then become much darker due to the Maillard reaction and must be shelled o The seeds are crushed into ground nibs Nibs – what happens when you crush cocoa beans Nibs can be crushed and creates a liquor (chocolate liquor) Top cocoa producer is Ivory Coast (1.51 million metric tons) in front of Ghana and Indonesia Fairtrade cocoa – “guarantees a better deal for Third World Producers” Video 3 Closest in taste to chocolate liquor is baking chocolate o Just cocoa powder Chocolate by itself is very bitter and has a very high fat content o In early 19 th century, van Houten family looked into this and tried to improve upon the properties of chocolate o Compressor – find a way to separate cocoa power from the fat Cocoa cakes came out one side and cocoa butter came out the other Cocoa cake is brown and cocoa butter is white Cocoa butter has a melting point close to body temperature and that is why it is used in cosmetics (lipstick) Cocoa butter is also used for medicinal purposes Cocoa cakes are very bitter and do not dissolve well In 1828, Conrad van Houten introduced a process to improve upon the cocoa cake o
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- Spring '11
- Nutrition, Diets, BMR, Low-carbohydrate diet, Chocolate