CHEM 181 Topic 4.docx - CHEM 181 Topic 4 Lesson 1 Carbohydrates Video 1 Macronutrients \u2013 carbohydrates fats and proteins o Fat \u2013 65 g\/day(more

CHEM 181 Topic 4.docx - CHEM 181 Topic 4 Lesson 1...

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CHEM 181 Topic 4 Lesson 1: Carbohydrates Video 1 Macronutrients – carbohydrates, fats, and proteins o Fat – 65 g/day (more likely 100) o Protein – 60 g/day (more likely 100) o Complex carbohydrates – 240 g/day (more likely 300) o Sugar – 50 g/day Amounts to less than 1lb Carbohydrates – 4 calories per gram (48% of all calories) Proteins – 4 calories per gram (16% of all calories) Fats – 9 calories per gram (36% of all calories) Fiber – 2 calories per gram From 1970 to 2006, about an 11% increase in pounds of food consumed per week o Dairy has gone down about 20% o Meat/eggs up 11% o Sugar up 17% o Fruit up 26% o Grains up 42% o Fats up 59% Video 2 The body converts carbohydrates into glucose Class carbohydrate is sucrose (table sugar) o C 12 H 22 O 11 o 4 calories per gram of material o 2 fragments to sucrose molecule – monosaccharides glucose and fructose which form the disaccharide sucrose A disaccharide consists of two carbohydrate molecules whereas a monosaccharide consists of one Eight -OH groups in a sucrose molecule o Implies that it is soluble in water (like dissolves like) because –OH groups bind with water Video 3 Our bodies use carbohydrates to create energy Energy + H 2 O + CO 2 carbohydrates + O 2 (glucose) o Glucose molecules are oxidized (consumed), giving back water and CO 2 in a cyclic fashion Glucose is composed in the same fashion as sucrose, just as a C 6 monosaccharide Stereochemistry – 3D aspect of chemistry and molecular structures Video 4 Methane – CH 4 – tetrahedral o Carbon can bind to itself very effectively
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When you change an –OH group, you change the name of the sugar itself Video 5 Cellulose – cannot be digested by humans, but can be by cows Starch – can be digested by humans o Bonding between glucose molecules is different in both Enzyme has a specific shape that fits with the reactant molecule and when they combine that enzyme acts in such a fashion that breaks apart molecules Complete oxidation of glucose: o C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (also energy) Video 6 Glucose – also known as Dextrose When glucose and fructose are bound together, form sucrose (disaccharide) o That bond can be broken by an enzyme into the two monosaccharides The enzyme has an ASE ending, which is typical of any enzyme engaged in a process of breaking down any molecules Invertase Invert sugar – 50/50 glucose and fructose o Name has to do with optical rotation of mixture Maltose is a sugar made up of two glucose molecules o Maltase is the enzyme that breaks down maltose Maltase breaks the carbohydrate into two glucose molecules which are then converted to energy through complete oxidation Video 7 Fructose is sweeter than sucrose and glucose so it’s used as an individual sweetener o Honey has high percentage of fructose (39%) and low percentage of sucrose (1%) Sucrose makes up brown sugar (with molasses)
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