Key ConceptsWhat are some of the keypropositions of the theory? How and why do people develop problems? View of human nature-deterministic, irrational forces, unconscious motivations, instinctual drivesPersonality -id (untamed drive), Ego (organize & meditate) Superego (internalized social component, parental figures, moral code)Focus on unconsciousnessEgo Defense Mechanisms- used to cope w/anxiety, deny or distort reality; operate onunconscious levelPsychosexual stages of development-oral, anal, phallic; need not met then fixated stageProblems arise from conflict b/t id, ego, & superego anxiety defense mechanisms; focus on early childhood experiences, unresolved conflicts or fixated at stage.Theory of ChangeHow can therapy help a person overcome problems? What must a person do to improve his or her functioning?*Increased adaptive function-decreased symptoms & resolution of conflicts*Make unconscious conscious*Strengthen ego*Client’s need to commit to intensive & long-term process*Clients must loosen defense mechanismInterventionsWhat techniques does the counselor use to helpbring about change? Free associations-Clients encouraged to say what come to mind, whether painful, silly, illogical, irrelevant; unconscious mind, therapist look for repressed material.Dream Analysis-uncovered unconscious material & providing client w/insight to some areas of unresolved problemsResistance-Anything preventing a client fromuncovering previously unconscious material;analysis & interpret resistanceTransference-Client makes projections onto Who Is in Charge? What Is the Role of the Client and the Counselor?