exam2 blanks1 - Chapter 9 Life Span Development I...

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Chapter 9 Life Span Development I) Developmental Psychology- studies _____________________ in behavior and mental processes from ___________ to _________ II) Key Theoretical Debates A) Nature vs. Nurture- ____________ vs. _____________ B) Continuity vs. Stages- _________ and __________ vs. periods of ________ ________ and then periods of ________ ________ C) Stability vs. Change- characteristics _____________ vs. characteristics ______________ D) ____________ and ______________ are governed by automatic genetically predetermined signals III) Research Methods A) Cross-sectional - measures individuals of __________ ages at one point in time and gives information about age _______________. i) Pros: quick, inexpensive, larger sample ii) Cons: cohort effects are difficult to separate, restricted generalizability B) Longitudinal – measures a single individual or a group of individuals over an _________ ___________ and give information about age ___________. i) Pros: increased reliability, more in-depth information per participant ii) Cons: expensive, time consuming, restricted generalizability IV)Three Stages A) Germinal – __________ to _____________ in the __________ B) Embryonic – ________ ________________ through the _________ week C) Fetal- _________ ________ until _________ i) Zygote- _____ fertilized by ________ V) Hazards to Prenatal development A) Teratogen- environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the ___________ _________ i) Diseases and Malnutrition ii) Legal and Illegal Drugs iii) Stressors and Exposure to Radiation VI)Early Childhood A) Key Areas of Change
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i) Brain ii) Motor Sensory iii) Sensory and Perceptual Development B) Newborn i) Reflexes - primary ii) Temperament – ______________ ______________ to the world (1) Approach response – generally react ____________ to new situations or stimuli (2) Withdrawal response- generally react _____________ to new situations or stimuli (3) Easy – doesn’t cry often, not demanding (4) Difficult – fussy, demanding iii) Senses of smell, taste, touch, hearing, are ________ developed at birth iv) Sense of vision is ________ developed at birth VII) Adolescence A) Puberty – time when ___________ cause the sex organs to _______ and secondary sexual characteristics to _______ (Girls: 8-14 Boys: 9-15) B) Adolescence- period between appearance of ___________ _________________ and end of ___________ years. VIII) Adulthood A) Late Adulthood i) Primary Aging- gradual, inevitable changes due to __________, __________, or _________. IX)Cognitive Development A) Jean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively _________ level and progress in distinct _________. B) Piaget’s schemas are the most basic unit of __________, which act as patterns that organize _______________ with the ____________. C) Schemas grow and change due to: i) Assimilation – ____________ new information into existing ___________ ii) Accommodation – ___________ old ________ or developing new ones to better fit with new ____________ D) Piaget’s Four Stages
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i) Sensorimotor – (birth to 2 years) _____________. Learn by what they _____. Infants do not have concept of object permanence (understanding that objects continue to ________ when its out of sight) Ability to _________ (~9 months) ii) Preoperational – (2 to 7 years) Object permanence. Event permanence. _________ play. Do not understand conservation (principle that certain ___________ of objects remain the same even when their ____________ changes (tall and skinny vs. short and fat)) (1) Egocentrism- inability to take another’s _______ ___ _______ iii) Concrete Operational – (7 to 11 years) Ability to do _______ ______. Can take other’s ______ ___ ______. Grasp harder concepts (time, width) iv)
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