exam2blanks2 - 1 Chapter 9 Life Span Development I studies...

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1 Chapter 9 Life Span Development I) ____________ _____________ - studies age related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death II) Key Theoretical Debates A) _______ vs. ________- heredity vs. environment B) _________ vs. __________- continuous and gradual vs. periods of abrupt change and then periods of little change C) _________ vs. ________- characteristics maintained vs. characteristics different D) Behavior and development are governed by automatic genetically predetermined signals III) Research Methods A) _________________ - measures individuals of various ages at one point in time and gives information about age differences. i) Pros: gives information about age differences, quick, inexpensive, larger sample ii) Cons: cohort effects are difficult to separate, restricted generalizability B) ______________ – measures a single individual or a group of individuals over an extended period and give information about age changes. i) Pros: gives information about age changes, increased reliability, more in-depth information per participant ii) Cons: expensive, time consuming, restricted generalizability IV)Three Stages A) __________ – conception to implantation in the uterus B) ___________ – uterine implantation through the eighth week C) ________- eight week until birth i) ________- egg fertilized by sperm V) Hazards to Prenatal development A) ___________- environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placenta barrier i) Diseases and Malnutrition ii) Legal and Illegal Drugs iii) Stressors and Exposure to Radiation VI)Early Childhood A) Key Areas of Change i) Brain
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2 ii) Motor Sensory iii) Sensory and Perceptual Development B) Newborn i) ___________ - primary ii) ____________ - emotional predisposition to the world (1) _________ __________ – generally react positively to new situations or stimuli (2) _________ __________- generally react negatively to new situations or stimuli (3) ________– doesn’t cry often, not demanding (4) __________ – fussy, demanding iii) Senses of _______, _______, ________, _________ are quite developed at birth iv) Sense of ________ is poorly developed at birth VII) Adolescence A) __________ – time when hormones cause the sex organs to mature and secondary sexual characteristics to appear (Girls: 8-14 Boys: 9-15) B) ____________- period between appearance of sexual characteristics and end of teenage years. VIII) Adulthood A) Late Adulthood i) __________ _______- gradual, inevitable changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect IX)Cognitive Development A) ______ ________ believed infants begin at a cognitively primitive level and progress in distinct stages. B) Piaget’s _________ are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment. C) Schemas grow and change due to: i) ____________ – absorbing new information into existing schemas ii) ______________– adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information D) Piaget’s Four Stages i) _____________ – (birth to 2 years) Perceptions. Learn by what they see. Infants do not have concept of _______ ______________ (understanding that objects continue to exist when its out of sight. Ability to imitate (~9 months)
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3 ii) ______________ – (2 to 7 years) Object permanence. Event permanence. Fantasy play. Do not understand ______________ (principle that certain properties of objects remain the same even when their appearance changes (tall and skinny vs. short and fat))
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