Plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.  Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications.  The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum , as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.  In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public health and sanitation.  Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers, although they work with piping as part of their trade, but their work can include some plumbing. History Systems Water pipes History Difference between pipes and tubes Materials Steel Copper Plastic Gallery Components Sealants Equipment and tools Problems Regulation Australia The United Kingdom The United States See also References Notes Further reading External links Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people.  Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping and stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building Contents History
Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.  The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.  The Latin for lead is plumbum . Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes  and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.  Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.
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