Chapter_Reviews_2007 - Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life OVERVIEW The chapter describes the nature of atoms and elements It continues by explaining

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Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life OVERVIEW The chapter describes the nature of atoms and elements. It continues by explaining chemical interactions such as covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and hydrophobic interaction that will play a role in molecular structure, and chemical reactions in biology. Special attention is paid to the structure and properties of water and the importance of acids and bases. KEY CONCEPTS 1. Matter is composed of atoms. Each atom consists of a positively charged nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons that bear negative charges and are located in orbital shells. 2. An element is made up of only one kind of atom, distinguished by having a unique number of protons. 3. In losing, gaining, or sharing electrons to become more stable, an atom can combine with other atoms to form molecules. 4. Covalent bonds are strong bonds formed when two atomic nuclei share one or more pairs of electrons. 5. Ions are electrically charged bodies that form when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons. Ionic bonds are electrical attractions between oppositely charged ions. 6. Hydrogen bonds are weak electrical attractions that form between a positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a negative nitrogen or oxygen atom in another molecule or in another part of a large molecule. Hydrogen bonds are abundant in water. 7. In chemical reactions, substances change their atomic compositions and properties. Energy is released in some reactions, whereas in others, energy must be provided. 8. Water’s molecular structure and its capacity to form hydrogen bonds give it unusual properties that are significant for life. 9. Solutions are produced when substances dissolve in water. Most biological substances are dissolved in water at very low concentrations. 10. Acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions. Bases are substances that accept hydrogen ions. Values lower than pH 7 indicate an acidic solution; values above pH 7 indicate a basic solution. 11. Buffers are systems of weak acids and bases that limit the change in pH when H + ions are added or removed. Chapter 3: Macromolecules and the Origin of Life OVERVIEW
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Chapter 3 presents the major concepts of organic chemistry as they apply to the study of biology. The chapter opens by explaining the concepts of functional groups and isomers and continues by describing the condensation reactions that form polymers and the hydrolysis reactions that break them down . Much of Chapter 3 explores the structures and functions of the four groups of macromolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA from G,T,C and A) and lipids (glycerol and fatty acids). Finally, Chapter 3 addresses the chemical evolution of the early Earth and the origin of life. KEY CONCEPTS
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course BS 111 taught by Professor Patterson during the Spring '05 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter_Reviews_2007 - Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life OVERVIEW The chapter describes the nature of atoms and elements It continues by explaining

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