AP Euro 532-540.pdf - u2756 Outposts of Constitutionalism...

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Outposts of Constitutionalism Dutch and English had much in common: Oriented toward commerce (especially overseas) Both had representative form of government Together led the coalition that blocked Louis XIV’s effort to dominate europe The Dutch Republic Dutch Republic gained formal independence from Spain in 1648 Already had established a decentralized constitutional state Rich merchants called regents controlled internal affairs of each province Stadholder- the executive officer was responsible for defense and for representing their state at all ceremonial occasions Encouraged and promoted trade Became Europe’s financial capital Dutch dominated overseas commerce with their shipping (imported products from all over the world) Dutch became most prosperous and best educated people in Europe Middle class supported visual arts especially painting Dutch artists made works that were sold to a mass marker rather than nobles or kings. Focused on daily details bc for them ordinary people had religious and political significance The family household determined the moral character of the society Dutch society had a clear contrast between middle class male and female roles in art High levels of urbanization and literacy created a large reading public Dutch survived direct military challenges but began to lose their position in international trade as Britain and France began limiting commerce with only colonies as merchants. Dutch began to put savings into foreign investments rather than own trade Freedom and Slavery in the New World French and English established settler colonies in North America and Caribbeans that provided with great profit while the Dutch lost only settler colony in North America to the English The Rise of the Slave Trade English and French set up labor systems in their new Caribbean island colonies where they worked on sugar fields

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