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1
Scientific Methods in Psychology
Chapter 2
(Part 2)
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Usually in research we are asking questions about a large
population of interest such as:
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People diagnosed with depression
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Workers in the United States
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All humans
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But it is not practical to study all the individuals in the
population.
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So we study a relatively small number of individuals from
the population, and we
generalize
from that small number.
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The small number of individuals is called a
sample
.
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Sampling Procedures—how samples are drawn
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Random sampling
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Convenience sampling
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Types of Samples
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Representative
samples have little or no Sampling
Error
.
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Crosscultural
samples contain people from at least two
distinct cultures.
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Research Designs
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There are many methods used to study psychological
phenomena. Every method has advantages and
disadvantages.
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Observational (nonexperimental) designs do
not
allow for
confident inferences about causeandeffect.
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Naturalistic Observation
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Case History
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Surveys
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Correlational Studies
Correlational Studies
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Correlation is a measure of the relationship between two
variables that are both outside of the investigator’s control.
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The mathematical estimate of the strength and direction of
a correlation is the
correlation coefficient
.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course PSY 200 taught by Professor Craig during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.
 Spring '08
 craig
 Psychology

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