ANTH Week 9 Forum.docx - This week I'd like you to choose...

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Unformatted text preview: This week, I'd like you to choose one of the cultures or sites from Eastern North America discussed in the movie and/or the book. You could choose from Poverty Point, the Adena Culture, the Hopewell Culture, or any of the Mississippian sites. Cahokia is a Mississippian site that is discussed in your readings from chapter 10. Cahokia, along with several other Mississippian sites (Etowah, Natchez, etc) that you could choose from are also discussed in the movie. Make sure you both watch the movie and read the text no matter which site or culture you choose. Once you have chosen your site or culture, give us a description of the culture. Be sure to discuss dates, locations, mounds or other structures, trade, and whether or not the people practiced agriculture. Now, consider this. When settlers first moved into the Midwest and Southeast, they decided that they were built by a race of "mound builders" that vanished from the continent. Some even said they were built by the Lost Tribes of Israel. They did not even consider the idea that the ancestors of the Native Americans could have built these monuments. Why do you think that was the case? STARTS HERE: THEIR LARGE COMMUNITY MEANS THAT THEY PRACTICED AGRICULTURE 200 years ago, while traveling along the Mississippi river near what is now St. Louis, the explore henry Breckenridge encountered the great mound at Cahokia and was lead to exclaim, “What a stupendous pile of earth!”Monk’s Mound, as it has come to be known, rises over 30 meters high in a series of four terraces, covers an area of more than 60,000 square meters, contains over 600,00 cubic meters of earth. The site at Cahokia is the largest known settlement of the Mississippi. In eastern North America. Archaeologists know understand monks mound to be the center of an in Ormus site covering roughly 4.5 km. It is very brisk pace, it takes about an hour to walk across the site. The settlement at Cahokia consisted of a series of small clusters, with the Grand Plaza at the mounds of “ Downtown Cahokia” at the center. It is likely that swamps and wetlands broke up the landscape. Unfortunately the size of the site and the poor preservation of the domestic structures make it difficult to determine the density and distribution of the houses. As a result, estimates of the population of Cahokia range anywhere from 4,000 to 40,000. Although Cahokia was a large population center, it is not clear that the term city or metropolis accurately describes it. Its large population definitely ensures the fact that they took up agriculture to feed the mouths that they had before them. More likely, the site was a series of dispersed living areas centered on the monumental core of Monk’s Mound and the Grand Plaza. For some archaeologist, Cahokia was a chiefdom on the verge of becoming a state. From this perspective, Cahokia's elite would not only over the site itself, but also over the surroundings settlements in the American Bottom. Others argue that Cahokia's Elite we're simply the most powerful among the many competing chiefdoms and that their power was limited. The most vivid evidence of social inequality within Cahokia society comes from the excavation of Mound 72, located to the south of downtown Cahokia. Mound 72 is relatively unimpressive; what brought it to the attention of archaeologist is the fact that it is the line directly with the western edge of Monk’s Mound. Students excavating the mound were surprised to come across a cachet of hundreds of complete arrowheads. As they continued excavating, they found that the arrowheads were part of an elaborate burial complex. The central figure was a man laid face up on a bird shaped platform made of over 20,000 cut shell beads. A number of other people were buried alongside this individual, together with the rich array of goods, including hundreds of arrowheads and polished granite disks. Other discoveries in Mound 72 of need to suggest the possibility that victims were killed to accompany the main burial. In one area, the bodies of four men were laid out with their arms overlapping those of the others. All for skeletons we're missing their heads and hands. In a nearby pit, the skeletons of over 50 young woman were found. The discoveries made at Mound 70 to indicate that wealth was concentrated in the hands of a small number of people within the community living at Cahokia. 20,000 shell beads and hundreds of arrowheads represent an enormous amount of skilled workmanship. The mass burials of young woman and the series of headless and handless buried Mills raise the possibility that the elite of Cahokia had control not only over material wealth, but also over the lives of their subjects. Excavations below Mound 51, located to the east of the grand plaza, provide a different perspective on the social life of Cahokia that complements the dramatic discoveries from now on 72. 951 was excavated in 1961 when it was in the process of being destroyed by residence of the nearby subdivision. Below the Mound, archaeologists found a while stratified sequence Ridge in botanical and faunal remains and pottery. This material is not ordinary residential debris, but rather the refuse from large scale feasting that took place in the grand plaza. The quantity of material found suggests that these feasting events were massive. The excavators have extrapolated the amount Of material in the pit by multiplying the density of objects per cubic meter in the excavated unit by the estimated volume of the entire pit. They calculate that there were over 18,000 ceramic vessels, more than 5000 gear, and over a half 1 million tobacco seeds within one stratigraphic zone. The grand plaza appears to have served as the site of communal fees involving people from Cahokia and the surrounding region. If so, the power of the elite of Cahokia might have stemmed from their ability to organize large numbers of people through feasting events rather than through a bureaucracy exercising the threat of force. One interesting possibility is that the grand plaza served as the setting for sporting events. The polished granite disks found in Mound 72 to fit with ethnographic descriptions of the game known as chunky. To discoveries in the Mound 51 excavations cast light on the religious system of Cahokia. The most common bird bones were those of swans and prairie chickens.. Both species are rarely found an excavation of sites contemporary with Cahokia. In Mound 72, the burial of the main individual on the shelf platform in the shape of a bird also suggests that birds had particular significance in Cahokia society. This interpretation is supported by the discovery, during excavations in Monk’s Mound, of a small sandstone plaque depicting a bird man. The excavations at Mound 51 also produced a significant amount of red Cedar branch the woods in cypress wood chips. It has been suggested that both of these types of wood had ritual significance. Large pools of red cedar, including in an enigmatic ring of poles known as “Woodhenge,” were used it Cahokia and special buildings. The elites of Cahokia were able to mobilize large numbers of people. The bulk of Monk’s Mound in the expense of the great plaza or evidence of a large scale work Fridays. The burial goods in Mont 72 are the product of a great deal of effort by skilled artisans. There remains found below mont 51 indicate that there were feasting events in the grand plaza involving thousands or even tens of thousands of people. The political force that made this organization possible remains unclear. Many archaeologist see Cahokia as a society on the verge of forming a state. Unlike the societies that built Stonehenge in Pueblo Bonito, the people who built them on even sicker hope you lived in a large, densely populated center. The sacrificial victims in Mound 72 also seem to indicate a degree of power that goes along way toward the kind of authority found in the hands of the rulers of state societies Excavations below Mound 51, located to the east of the grand plaza, provide a different perspective on the social life of Cahokia that complements the dramatic discoveries from now on 72. Mound 51 was excavated in 1961 when it was in the process of being destroyed by residence of the nearby subdivision. Below the Mound, archaeologists found a while stratified sequence Ridge in botanical and faunal remains and pottery. This material is not ordinary residential debris, but rather the refuse from large scale feasting that took place in the grand plaza. The quantity of material found suggests that these feasting events were massive. The excavators calculate that there were over 18,000 ceramic vessels, more than 5000 gear, and over a half 1 million tobacco seeds within one stratigraphic zone. The grand plaza appears to have served as the site of communal feasts involving people from Cahokia and the surrounding region. If so, the power of the elite of Cahokia might have stemmed from their ability to organize large numbers of people through feasting events rather than through a bureaucracy exercising the threat of force. One interesting possibility is that the Grand Plaza served as the setting for sporting events. The polished granite disks found in Mound 72 to fit with ethnographic descriptions of the game known as chunky. The discoveries in the Mound 51 excavations cast light on the religious system of Cahokia. The most common bird bones were those of swans and prairie chickens.. Both species are rarely found an excavation of sites contemporary with Cahokia. In Mound 72, the burial of the main individual on the shelf platform in the shape of a bird also suggests that birds had particular significance in Cahokia society. This interpretation is supported by the discovery, during excavations in Monk’s Mound, of a small sandstone plaque depicting a bird man. STARTS HERE FR The site at Cahokia is the largest known settlement of the Mississippi. In eastern North America, archaeologists now understand monks mound to be the center of an enormous site covering roughly 4.5 km. The settlement at Cahokia consisted of a series of small clusters, with the Grand Plaza at the mounds of “ Downtown Cahokia” at the center. It is likely that swamps in wetlands broke up a landscape. Unfortunately the size of the site in the poor preservation of the domestic structures make it difficult to determine the density and distribution of the houses. As a result, estimates of the population of Cahokia range anywhere from 4,000 to 40,000. Although Cahokia was a large population center, it is not clear that the term city or metropolis accurately describes it. Its large population definitely ensures the fact that they took up agriculture to feed the mouths that they had before them. More likely, the site was a series of dispersed living areas centered on the monumental core of Monk’s Mound and the Grand Plaza. For some archaeologist, Cahokia was a chiefdom on the verge of becoming a state. From this perspective, Cahokia's elite would not only over the site itself, but also over the surroundings settlements in the American Bottom. Others argue that Cahokia's Elite we're simply the most powerful among the many competing chiefdoms and that their power was limited. The most vivid evidence of social inequality within Cahokia society comes from the excavation of Mound 72, located to the south of downtown Cahokia. What brought it to the attention of archaeologist is the fact that it is the line directly with the western edge of Monk’s Mound. Students excavating the Mound were surprised to come across a cachet of hundreds of complete arrowheads. As they continued excavating, they found that the arrowheads were part of an elaborate burial complex. The central figure was a man laid face up on a bird shaped platform made of over 20,000 cut shell beads. A number of other people were buried alongside this individual, together with the rich array of goods, including hundreds of arrowheads and polished granite disks. Other discoveries in Mound 72 lead to suggest the possibility that victims were killed to accompany the main burial. In one area, the bodies of four men were laid out with their arms overlapping those of the others. All for skeletons were missing their heads and hands. In a nearby pit, the skeletons of over 50 young woman were found. The discoveries made at Mound 70 to indicate that wealth was concentrated in the hands of a small number of people within the community living at Cahokia. 20,000 shell beads and hundreds of arrowheads represent in an enormous amount of skilled workmanship. The mass burials of young woman and the series of headless and handless buried Mills raise the possibility that the elite of Cahokia had control not only over material wealth, but also over the lives of their subjects. When settlers first moved into the Midwest and Southeast, they decided that they were built by a race of "mound builders" that vanished from the continent. They did not even consider the idea that the ancestors of the Native Americans could have built these monuments. Many of the mounds were found to reveal human burials accompanied by an array of grave goods such as soapstone, shell, iron and copper. These riches and the complexity of some of the mounds suggested to many early Americans a sophisticated, and civilized race. Many people saw Native Americans as “savages”, and believed that there could not have been anyway that they were the ones behind the building of these mounds. Nearly every culture was considered before Native Americans were given the credit of the land that was taken from them. Mouhammed Rizk The site at Cahokia is the largest known settlement of the Mississippi in eastern North America. Archaeologists now believe that monks mound was the center of an enormous site covering roughly 4.5 km. The settlement at Cahokia consisted of a series of small clusters, with the Grand Plaza at the mounds of “ Downtown Cahokia” at the center. It is likely that swamps in wetlands broke up a landscape. Unfortunately the size of the site cannot be accurately estimated because of the poor preservation of the domestic structures. As a result, estimates of the population of Cahokia range anywhere from 4,000 to 40,000. Although Cahokia was a large population center, it is not clear that the term city could actually describe it. Its large population definitely ensures the fact that they took up agriculture to feed the mouths that were present. It is more likely that the site was a series of scattered living areas centered on the monumental core of Monk’s Mound and the Grand Plaza. For some archaeologists, Cahokia was a chiefdom on the verge of becoming a state. People argue that Cahokia's Elite we're simply the most powerful among the many competing chiefdoms and that their power was limited. The most vivid evidence of social inequality within Cahokia society comes from the excavation of Mound 72, located to the south of downtown Cahokia, and is directly in line with the western edge of Monk’s Mound. Students excavating the Mound were surprised to come across hundreds of complete arrowheads. As they continued excavating, they found that the arrowheads were part of an elaborate burial complex. The central figure was a man laid face up on a bird shaped platform made of over 20,000 cut shell beads. A number of other people were buried alongside this individual, together with a number of goods, including hundreds of arrowheads and polished granite disks. Other discoveries in Mound 72 lead to suggest that victims were killed to accompany the main burial. In one area, the bodies of four men were laid out with their arms overlapping those of the others. All for skeletons were missing their heads and hands. In a nearby pit, the skeletons of over 50 young woman were found. The discoveries made at Mound 72 indicated that wealth was mainly in the hands of a small number of people within the community living at Cahokia. 20,000 shell beads and hundreds of arrowheads represent in an enormous amount of skilled workmanship. The mass burials of young woman and the series of headless and handless buried Mills raise the possibility that the elite of Cahokia also had control over the lives of their subjects. When settlers first moved into the Midwest and Southeast, they decided that they were built by a race of "mound builders" that disappeared from the continent. No one even thought consider the idea that the ancestors of the Native Americans present at the time could have built these monuments. Many of the mounds were found to reveal human burials accompanied by an array of grave goods such as soapstone, shell, iron and copper. These riches and the complexity of some of the mounds suggested to many early Americans a sophisticated, and civilized race. While Native Americans were seen as “savages,” and believed that they couldn’t have been the ones to leave behind these mounds. Almost every culture was considered before Native Americans were given the credit of the land that was taken from them. I believe that this was completely unfair, Native Americans deserved credit for their advancements from the start. ...
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  • Fall '16
  • amy van
  • Mississippian culture

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