HSC Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Exam#1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Exam #1 Study Guide: Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 4 Keys to good health 1. Exercise 2. Eat right 3. Don’t abuse alcohol 4. Don’t smoke Personality types: A, B, C, D TYPE A -Aggressive, easily frustrated -Impatient at rate of events -Finish sentences of others -Not usually good listeners -Competitive – play to win, need to one up others -Don’t always notice things around them -Perfectionistic tendencies -May have nervous habits – shaking leg, clicking pen, etc. -Numbers game -Have trouble saying “no” TYPE B: -Fairly passive -Easy going -Manage time – can say “no” and not feel guilty -Competitive, but don’t necessarily “play” to win -Encourages others -Notice more details -Good listeners TYPE C: -Focus on fine details -Allow people to follow their own path -Not highly assertive, but wish they were TYPE D: -Typically see things in a negative way -Pessimistic -Higher risk for depression Personality Theories: Maslow, Erickson, Kohlberg, Piaget, Freud
- Maslow : Basic, physiological needs appear at the base of the pyramid. As you move upward, you address needs that are less urgent to satisfy, developing greater psychological health, until you realize self-actualization - Erickson : Personality develops through 8 stages Infant (birth-1 yr.): Trust vs Mistrust Toddler (18 mos.- 2 or 3): Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Pre-school (3-5): Initiative vs Guilt Grade School (5-12): Industry vs Inferiority Teen (12-18): Identity vs Role Confusion Young Adult (19-40): Intimacy vs Isolation Middle Adult (40-65): Generativity vs Stagnation Older Adult (65+): Integrity vs Despair - Kohlberg : Moral-Ethical Punishment – Reward Reward desired behavior, punish undesirable behavior - Piaget and Kohlberg believed that moral development mainly occurs through our social interactions. - Piaget : Psychosocial Sensorimotor (oral): 18-24 months Pre-operational (talking, symbolic play): 2-7 years Concrete (more logical, literal): 7-12 years Formal Operations (more abstract): 12+ years - Freud : ID: unconscious pleasure drive EGO: conscious self SUPEREGO: conscience, judges right from wrong --Defense Mechanisms (protect ego) a. Rationalization d. Repression b. Denial e. Regression c. Projection 7 Dimensions of Health 1. Physical health: How well your body functions, and how well you care for it.
2. Intellectual health: A willingness to take on new intellectual challenges, openness to new ideas and skills, a capacity to think critically, and a sense of humor and curiosity. 3. Psychological health: Autonomy, self-acceptance, and the ability to maintain nurturing relationships and to pursue meaningful goals. 4. Spiritual health: Influenced by your beliefs and values and the way in which you express them. 5. Social health: The quality of interactions and relationships with others. 6. Environmental health: The quality of home, work, school, and social environments—as well as the health of our planet.

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