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CH101 Lec4 - Some practice while you wait Rank the...

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Some practice while you wait: Rank the elements {Ge, P, O} and {O, F, Ne} by... Atomic Radii: Ionization Energy: Electronegativity: Ge > P > O O > P > Ge O > P > Ge As n ↑→ r O > F > Ne Across a period, r Ne > F > O F > O > Ne Noble gas!
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Chemical Bonding Ionic (electrostatics forces-Coulomb’s Law) Covalent (electron sharing) Metallic (super electron sharing)
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Bonding Shades of Gray Complete Sharing Elements with identical EA H—H Cl—Cl Diamond Complete transfer Na+ Cl- Alkali/Halogen Elements with very different EA Partial transfer Elements with similar EA AgCl SiO 2 CdS IONIC COVALENT
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Section 4.1 CHAPTER 4: The Ionic Bond Metals  have  low  ionization energies (E ionization ) they prefer to  lose  e ’s and become  cations Non-metals  have  high  electronegativities ( χ ) When an electron is  transferred  from a metal to a non- metal, an  ionic bond  is formed.
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Section 4.1 2p 2s Cl 3s Na e  lowers it’s energy 2p 2s 3s Na + NaCl is an ionic  compound. An ionic bond is formed  between Na +  and Cl . If  E isn’t big enough, the e ’s are shared and a covalent  bond is formed (Chapter 5).
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Section 4.2 Ionic Radii: Cations get smaller! Anions get larger! See Figures 4.1a and 4.1b
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Section 4.1 Anions: When a non-metal  gains  electrons, it becomes an  anion Change it’s name by adding “- ide ” to the end Ex.  chlorine   chloride oxygen   oxide sulfur   sulfide Non-metals will gain enough electrons to  fill  their outer shell Ex.   ([Ne]3s 2 3p 5 ) Cl + e    Cl        ([He]2s 2  2p 4 )  O + 2e    O 2– 2– Naming Ions and Predicting Charge
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Section 4.1 Cations: When a metal  loses  electrons, it becomes a 
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