Ch8 - Chapter 8: Solid Materials Types of solids H 2 O C...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: Solid Materials Types of solids H 2 O C SiO 2 Liquid Crystals Ca(CO 3 ) C Cu crystalline amorphous Structure of solids C r y s t a l l a t t i c e C r y s t a l l a t t i c e : pattern of the ordered array Section 8.0 X O X O X O X O O X O X O X O X X O X O X O X O O X O X O X O X X O O X X O X O O X X X O X O X X O X O O O X O X X X O X X X O Local order Long range order U n i t c e l l U n i t c e l l : simplest portion that shows the pattern There are seven different types of unit cells X-Ray Diffraction Structure of solids U n i t c e l l U n i t c e l l : simplest portion that shows the pattern (repeat unit) Cubic unit cells sc simple cubic lattice sites corners bcc Body-centered cubic lattice sites corners & center fcc Face-centered cubic lattice sites corners & faces Section 8.1 simple cubic (primitive) lattice sites: corners Atoms/cell = 8 corner atoms x 1/8 ownership Atoms/cell = 1 Atom Packing Efficiency = 52 % Very light material. Not dense. Example: Polonium Coordination Number = 6 Section 8.1-8.5 Body-centered cubic lattice sites : Corners & Center Atoms/cell = 8 corner atoms x 1/8 ownership + 1 central atom at full ownership Atoms/cell = 2 Atoms Packing Efficiency = 68 % More dense than SCC Example: iron Coordination Number = 8 Section 8.1-8.5 Face-centered cubic lattice sites: Corners & Faces Atoms/cell = 8 corner atoms x 1/8 ownership + 6 face atoms x 1/2 ownership Atoms/cell = 4 Atoms Packing Efficiency = 74 % Most Dense cubic cell Example: iron in stainless steel Coordination Number = 12 Section 8.1-8.5 Unit Cell Ownership of Atoms 1 center atom at full ownership = 1 atom Section 8.3 A cube has 1 center It takes 1 cube to contain a center atom Unit Cell Ownership of Atoms 6 face atoms at 1/2 ownership = 3 atoms Section 8.3 A cube has 6 faces It takes 2 cubes to contain a face atom Unit Cell Ownership of Atoms 12 edge atoms at 1/4 ownership = 3 atoms Section 8.3 A cube has 12 edges It takes 4 cubes to contain an edge atom Unit Cell Ownership of Atoms...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course PSY 200 taught by Professor Craig during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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Ch8 - Chapter 8: Solid Materials Types of solids H 2 O C...

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