Final Exam - Bio-Security I. Bio-Terrorism: deliberate...

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Bio-Security I. Bio-Terrorism : deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other agents used to cause illness/death in people, animals, plants a. Food Terrorism : act/threat to deliberate contamination of food for human consumption with chemical, biological, or nuclear agents for purpose of causing death to civilian populations and/or disrupting social, economic, or political stability b. Why Attack Food Supply? i. Instill fear ii. Human suffering and death iii. Economic disruption iv. Loss of political support/confidence v. Social instability c. Incidents i. 1952: Mau Mau (Kenya) 1. poisoned livestock under control of British 2. African milk bush toxin 3. Protested British presence ii. 1984: Rajneeshees (Oregon) 1. contaminated salad bars with Salmonella 2. Influence local elections 3. took a year before it was discovered to be intentional iii. 1985: Watermelon 1. contaminated with Aldicarb (carbamate pesticide) iv. 1987: Israel 1. citrus fruits contaminated with mercury v. 1996-98: China 1. farmer used rat poison to kill people 2. poisoned livestock 3. jealousy of neighbors vi. 1997: USA 1. donuts contaminated with Shigella vii. 2002: China 1. rat poison to contaminate food 2. attempt to ruin competitors reputation viii. 2003: Michigan 1. disgruntled employee contaminates ground beef at grocery store with insecticide d. Is a Major Deliberate Act Possible? i. “Natural” Foodborne Outbreaks 1. 1985 (USA) – Salmonella in pasteurized milk 2. 1991 (China) – Hep A in clams 3. 1994 (USA) – Salmonella in ice cream II. The Stanford Report – Modeling a Terrorist Attack a. Stanford University – 2005 b. Modeled after California dairy industry i. Impact of bot toxin on holding tank of milk ii. Botulinum Toxin 1. affects ACh receptors at synaptic vesicles 2. not heat stable c. Estimated Human/Economic Impact
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i. Based on 10g of toxin 1. 400,000+ illnesses 2. $8.6 billion for every 50,000 sick ii. Substantial overestimate? 1. bot toxin is very difficult to produce and purify III. Vulnerability a. Concentrated/Intensive Farming Practices i. Crowding of animals b. Increased Susceptibility of Livestock to Disease i. Hormones, antibiotics c. Insufficient Security and Surveillance i. Unauthorized access ii. Lack of uniform security at processing plants, esp. small/medium plants d. Passive Disease-Reporting System i. Livestock producers e. Inappropriate Vet Training i. Not well-trained enough in disease recognition f. Focus on Aggregate vs. Individual Statistics i. Large herds make detection of sick individual difficult IV. Government Response a. USDA i. Assistance to states and rural communities ii. Various programming, improved monitoring b. Dept. of Homeland Security i. Homeland Security Centers of Excellence 1. National Center for Food Protection and Defense (U Minn.) 2. National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense (Texas c. Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act (2002) i. FDA – Title III: Protecting Safety and Security of Food and Drug Supply
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course BIOL 4604 taught by Professor Sumner during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Final Exam - Bio-Security I. Bio-Terrorism: deliberate...

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